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    Yawm al-Tarwiyah – 8th of Dhul Hijjah

    The Prophet ﷺ performed Fajr at al-Abtah on Thursday the 8th of Dhul Hijjah, before leaving for Mina on his mount in mid-morning. When the caravan left al-Abtah, those of his companions who had previously left the state of Ihram after having performed Umrah, reentered into Ihram with the intention of performing Hajj. They chanted the Talbiyah with their departure for Mina.1Muslim, Hadith No. 1214. During the journey, Bilal I protected the Prophet ﷺ from the heat of the sun by providing him with shade. Abu Umamah I narrates:

    The companions informed us that when the Prophet ﷺ left for Mina. Bilal, travelling alongside the Prophet’s conveyance, held a stick that had a cloth on top of it, providing him with shade.2Ahmad.

    The Prophet ﷺ and his companions spent the rest of the day and the night at Mina, observing the Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha and Fajr prayers during their stay there. The prayers consisting of four Rakats where shortened to two Rakats i.e. Qasr Salah was performed, and each prayer was carried out within its respective time frame.3Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 879; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3004.

    Yawm al-Arafat- 9th of Dhul Hijjah

    An old picture of Arafat

    After having performed Fajr at Mina, the Prophet ﷺ addressed his companions. Jabir ibn Abdullah I narrates:

    After the prayer the Prophet ﷺ ordered everyone to remain in their places and proclaimed the majesty of the Allah with the following words: ‘Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illallah, wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillahil Hamd’. He uttered these words after each prayer until Asr of the last day of Tashreeq.4Al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra.

    He stayed a little longer until the sun had risen before proceeding to Arafat. He called for a tent made of haircloth to be pitched for him at Namirah, before riding to Arafat via the Dhab route, a shortcut from Muzdalifah to Arafat. Dhab is a mountain situated to the left of Masjid al-Khayf in Mina, in the direction of Arafat. As the companions set off, some of them were reciting the Talbiyah, whilst others were proclaiming the Takbir.

    The Prophet’s ﷺ tribe, the Quraysh, fully expected him stop short of Arafat and to remain at Muzdalifah, as was their customary practice during the period of Jahiliyyah. They would not proceed beyond this point out of arrogance and pride, whilst pilgrims belonging to other tribes would continue on to Arafat. The Prophet ﷺ, however, carried on beyond Muzdalifah in accordance with the instruction of Allah:5Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1665 & 4520; Muslim, Hadith No. 1218 & 1219.

    ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

    Then depart from the place from where [all] the people depart and ask forgiveness of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
    [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:199]

    It is also related that during the period of Jahiliyyah, the Prophet performed ﷺ Wuquf at Arafat, against the customary practice of his tribe. Jubayr ibn Mut’im I narrates:

    I lost my camel and went in search of it on the day of Arafat and I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ among the people in Arafat. Thereupon I said: ‘By Allah, he is among the Hums (Quraish). What has brought him here?'6Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1664; Muslim, Hadith No. 1220; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3013.

    During the journey to Arafat, some companions raised their voices in pronouncing the Talbiyah whilst others pronounced Takbir. No objection was made from the Prophet ﷺ as to what was said.  Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Ath-Thaqafi I narrates:

    When we were leaving Mina for Arafat, I said to Anas: ‘What did you do for the Talbiyah with the Messenger of Allah on this day?’ He said: ‘Those who recited the Talbiyah did so, and no one criticised them, and those who recited the Takbir did so, and no one criticised them.7Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 970; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1816; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2999 3000.

    Some of the companions such as Umar ibn al Khattab, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Masud M also performed Ghusl in preparation for the Wuquf at Arafat. Nafi I said:

    Abdullah ibn Umar used to do Ghusl for Ihram before he entered Ihram, for entering Makkah and for standing on the afternoon of Arafat.8Malik, Hadith No. 710.

    When the Prophet ﷺ arrived at Namirah, an area just before Arafat, he remained in the tent which had been erected for him. His wives remained in tents around him. When the sun came down from its meridian, he sent for his she-camel, al-Qaswa, and he rode into the interior of Uranah valley, a spacious expanse where his companions were able to gather around him. He arrived at the bottom of the valley and, seated on his camel, addressed his companions with a powerful speech, now known as Khutbat al-Wida (Arabic: خطبة الوداع; “The Farewell Sermon”). Today, a mosque, Masjid al-Namirah, has been erected in this area. The front of the mosque, which extends beyond the boundary of Arafat, is where the Prophet ﷺ delivered the sermon and combined the Dhuhr and Asr prayers thereafter.

    Rabi’ah ibn Umayah I, whose father was killed during the Battle of Badr fighting against the Muslims, was tasked with the responsibility of repeating the Prophet’s ﷺ sermon loudly, sentence by sentence, so that it would be heard by those who would have otherwise found it difficult to receive the Prophet’s ﷺ message.

    The Farewell Sermon

    An old picture of Masjid Namirah, next to which the Prophet ﷺ delivered the Farewell Sermon

    After the Prophet ﷺ had praised and glorified God, he said: “Listen to me. You may not see me after this year. Your blood, property and honour are forbidden for you (to take by illegitimate means) just as the (violation of the) sanctity of this day, in this month, in this city. All practices of the days of Jahiliyyah are hereby abolished. They are under my two feet. All killings that took place in the days of Jahiliyyah are waived (i.e. no revenge killing can be sanctioned). The first killing I waive is that of (my cousin) Rabi’ah ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul Muttalib. All usury transactions of the days of Jahiliyyah are cancelled. The first such transaction I cancel is that of my people, the usury of al-Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib. It is abolished in full. You may only ask your principal amount, having no injustice done to you or to others. God has decreed that no usury is permitted.

    “People, fear God in your treatment of women. You take them as a trust assigned by God, and they are made lawful to you by God’s word. Take good care of women, for they are stationed with you and cannot determine their affairs. You have no say over them other than what has been mentioned. The only exception is that if they commit gross indecency. Your women owe you a duty and you owe a duty to them. Your right is that they should not accommodate in your homes anyone you dislike, and that they do not admit into your homes anyone you do not want to be admitted. Their right is that you must be kind to them in providing them with clothes and food. If you have reason to fear rebellion, admonish them (first); then leave them alone in bed; then beat them without pain. If they pay you heed, do not seek any pretext to harm them. I have left with you what will keep you from error if you hold on to it: God’s book.”

    “I shall be ahead of you at the water pond on the Day of Judgement, and I hope for pride of numbers of my people against other communities. Therefore, do not put me to shame. I shall be saving some people, but others will be taken away from me. I will protest that they are my companions, but I will be told: ‘You do not know how they deviated after you were gone.’ People, take heed of what I am saying, because I have delivered my message.”

    The Prophet ﷺ then asked them: ‘You shall be asked to testify about me on the Day of Judgement; so what will you say?” They replied in unison: “We testify that you have delivered your Lord’s message, gave your people good counsel and fulfilled your task.” The Prophet ﷺ then pointed his fingers to the sky and then to the people and said: “My Lord, bear witness.” He repeated this several times.9Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 4403; Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1905; Ahmad, 18966, 20695, 22260 & 23497;

    Dhuhr and Asr

    After the sermon, The Prophet ﷺ instructed Bilal I to recite the Adhan and to utter the Iqama for Dhuhr Salah thereafter. The Prophet ﷺ and his companions then observed the Dhuhr prayer, which was offered in Qasr mode i.e. the prayer was shortened to two Rakats. Bilal then uttered the Iqama for Asr Salah, which was led by the Prophet ﷺ immediately after Dhuhr Salah, again in Qasr mode. The Prophet ﷺ did not perform any supererogatory prayers (Sunan) between the two prayers, but prayed both of them together at the time of Dhuhr with one Adhan and two Iqamas.10Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1905; Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 3944.

    Wuquf At Jabal al-Rahmah

    Pilgrims on Jabal al-Rahmah in 1950

    After completing his prayers, the Prophet ﷺ mounted his she-camel and traveled further into the valley of Arafat, towards Jabal al-Rahmah. He stopped at the foot of the mountain and turned towards the Qibla, remaining in a position where the mountain was just ahead of him. Jabir ibn Abdullah I narrates:

    He mounted al-Qaswa and came to the place of standing, making his she-camel turn its back to the rocks and, before facing the Qibla. He remained standing until sunset when the yellow light had somewhat gone and the disc of the sun had disappeared.11Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1905.

    The great scholar Imam Nawawi V writes:

    All of Arafat is a place of Wuquf although its best place is the Prophet’s ﷺ place of Wuquf, which is near the large stones laid out at the bottom of Jabal al-Rahmah in the heart of Arafat.12Imam Nawawi, al-Idhah fi Manasik al-Hajj wal-Umrah.

    The Prophet ﷺ sent word to the people to take their positions at the places appointed for the ritual. He instructed one of his Ansari companions, Ibn Mirba I, to tell the people within Arafat: “Stay where you are, for you are following the legacy of you father Ibrahim S.”13Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3014; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1919; Ahmad, Hadith No. 17233. The Prophet ﷺ informed them that Wuquf on the 9th Dhul Hijjah can be carried out anywhere within the confines of Arafat. He said: “I have stood here and all of Arafat is a place of standing.”14Muslim, Hadith No. 1218.

    Dua of the Prophet

    A pilgrim making Dua

    He then raised his hands in supplication and began to implore and beseech Allah from midday until the sun had set, all the while seated on his camel. When the Prophet ﷺ supplicated, he would raise his hands to the level of his chest in a similar manner to a needy person pleading for provision. At one point, his camel became unsettled and the rein fell off. He picked it up with one hand while his other hand was raised in supplication.15Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3011; Ahmad, Hadith No. 21821.

    The Prophet ﷺ supplicated for himself and his Ummah and declared that Dua made on the Day of Arafat is the best of supplications. Amr ibn Shu’aib narrates from his grandfather that the Prophet ﷺ said:

    The best of supplication is the supplication of the Day of Arafat. And the best of what I and the Prophets before me have said is:

    لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

    Lā ilāha illallāh, waḥdahu lā sharīka lahu, lahul-mulku wa lahul-ḥamdu, wa huwa ‘alā kulli shai’in qadīr.

    None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, alone without partner. To Him belongs all that exists, and to Him is the praise, and He is powerful over all things.16Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3585; Malik, Hadith No. 504 & 951.

    Another narration from Ali I affixes the following Dua to the previous supplication:

    اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ فِي قَلْبِي نُورَاً وَفِي سَمْعِي نُورَاً وَفِي بَصَرِي نُورَاً اللَّهُمَّ اشْرَحْ لِي صَدْرِي وَيَسِّرْ لِي أَمْرِي وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ وَسَاوِسِ الصُّدُورِ وَشَتَاتِ الْأَمْرِ وَفِتْنَةِ الْقَبْرِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَلِجُ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَشَرِّ مَا يَلِجُ فِي النَّهَارِ وَشَرِّ مَا تَهِبُّ بِهِ الرِّيَاحُ

    O Allah, enlighten my heart, enlighten my hearing and enlighten my sight. O Allah, open up my heart and make my matters easy for me. O Allah, I seek your protection from the insinuations of the heart, from disorder in matters and from the evil of the tribulations of the grave. O Allah, I seek your protection from the evil that occurs during the night and the evil that occurs during the day and the evil that comes with the wind.17Al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra.

    Describing the supplication the Prophet ﷺ made for his Ummah, al-Abbas ibn Mirdas al-Sulami I narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ, during the latter part of the day of Arafat, supplicated abundantly for the forgiveness of the Ummah. Allah informed the Prophet ﷺ: ‘I have accepted your supplication but I will not forgive the oppressors.’ The Prophet ﷺ pleaded ‘O my Lord, You have the ability to give the oppressed greater reward for their suffering at the hands of the oppressor, so forgive the oppressor.’ However, that part of the supplication wasn’t accepted that evening but was accepted after the Prophet ﷺ repeated the supplication at Muzdalifah.'18Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3013.

    As well as Dua, the Prophet ﷺ continued to recite Talbiyah during his Wuquf on the Day of Arafat.

    The Question of Fasting

    The Prophet ﷺ spent the rest of the day in fervent prayer and supplication. Such was his devotion that there was a dispute among the companions about whether he was fasting or not. Lubaba bint al-Harith (Umm al-Fadl) J, the wife of al-Abbas ibn Abdul Mutallib I, sent him a cup of milk to determine if he was fasting or not. The Prophet ﷺ drank the milk while he was riding his camel, confirming that he was not in fact fasting.19Muslim, Hadith No. 1123.

    A Pilgrim’s Death

    During the course of the afternoon, a pilgrim, whose name or tribe wasn’t recorded, fell from his camel and died. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrates:

    A man in the company of Allah’s Messenger (for Hajj) fell down from his mount and broke his neck (and died) at Arafat. The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Wash him with water and Sidr (leaves from the Lote tree) and shroud him in his two garments.  Neither perfume him nor cover his head, for he will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection, reciting Talbiyah.'20Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1266 & 1851; Muslim, Hadith No. 1206; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1850 & 1914.

    The prohibition of using perfume and covering his head was due to the fact that he was in a state of Ihram when he passed away.

    Providing Guidance

    An encampment at Arafat many years ago

    He also continued to guide his companions and answer their questions. A group of people from Najd asked him about the pilgrimage. He said: “Hajj is Arafat. Whoever comes before Fajr prayer on the night of Muzdalifah, he has completed his Hajj.” The Prophet’s ﷺ answer affirmed that any pilgrim who is present at Arafat at any point between midday on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah and dawn the following day is considered to have offered the pilgrimage.21Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 2975; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3016; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3015; Ahmad, Hadith No. 18774.

    A Bedouin from the tribe of Qays Aylan called Abdullah Ibn al-Muntafiq I looked for the Prophet ﷺ until he found him at Arafat. He reports:

    I went through the crowd to reach him, but people tried to stop me. The Prophet ﷺ told them: ‘Let the man pass; he has something to ask.’ I passed through the crowd until I reached him and held the rein of his she-camel. The necks of our two camels touched each other in opposite directions. He did not change position. I said: ‘I ask about two things – what will save me from hell and what will admit me into heaven?’ He looked at the sky, then he turned to me with his noble face and said: ‘You have asked your question concisely, although you are asking about something tremendous. Listen to me and understand what I am saying: Worship God alone, associating no partners with Him. Attend to your prayers, pay your Zakat (i.e. the obligatory charity) and fast in Ramadan. Whatever good you expect from people, treat them in that very way; and whatever you hate from them, do not reciprocate. Now let go of the rein of my she-camel.'22Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1396 & 5983; Muslim, Hadith No. 13; Ahmad, Hadith No. 15883 & 27153; al-Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, Hadith No. 10620.

    Verse of Ikmal al-Din (Perfection of the Religion)

    On this day, the Prophet ﷺ received the following revelation:

     الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ ۚ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

    This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion.
    [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:3]

    When Umar ibn al-Khattab I heard this verse, he began to weep. The Prophet ﷺ asked him why he was crying. He said: “What made me cry is that our religion has been perfected for us. Now it is perfect, it is bound to deteriorate, for nothing remains perfect.” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “You have spoken the truth.”23Ibn Abi Shaybah, Al-Musannaf, Hadith No. 34408; al-Fakihi, Akhbar Makkah, 780; al-Tabari, Jami’ al-Bayan, vol.8, p. 81.

    During the caliphate of Umar, Tariq ibn Shihab I reported that a Jewish man said to him:

    Commander of the Faithful, if this verse were revealed in relation to the Jews, we would have taken that day as a day of celebration. Thereupon Umar said: ‘I know the day on which it was revealed and the hour when it was revealed and where Allah’s Messenger ﷺ had been when it was revealed. It was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in Arafat with Allah’s Messenger ﷺ at that time.'24Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 4407; Muslim, Hadith No. 3017; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3043.

    Glad Tidings

    An old sketch of Jabal al-Rahmah

    Shortly before sunset, the Prophet ﷺ instructed Bilal to get the attention of the people. As they gathered around him, he gave them the glad tidings of having earned the pleasure of God and that their sins had been forgiven. The Prophet ﷺ said: “O people, the angel Jibril S came to me a short while ago and conveyed greetings from my Lord. He said: God has forgiven the people at Arafat and al-Mash’ar (i.e. Muzdalifah), and has taken over their responsibilities. Umar asked him: “Messenger of God, does this apply to us in particular?” The Prophet ﷺ said: “It applies to you and to all who come after you until the Day of Judgement.” Umar said: “How beautiful and generous is God’s grace”. As the Prophet ﷺ observed the declining sun, he said: “You people, should know that what remains of your world in relation to what has gone is the same as what remains of this day in relation to what has gone.”

    Ready for Departure

    As the Prophet ﷺ was ready to depart from Arafat, he summoned Usama ibn Zayd I to ride with him on his camel.25Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1686. This may have come to a surprise to many, particularly those new to Islam, since Usama was a young man of Abyssinian heritage. The Prophet ﷺ, however, wanted to emphasise the egalitarian nature of the pilgrimage and the Muslim community as a whole. He thus practically declared that “no Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor a white man over a black one, except by being more God-fearing.”

    Journey to Muzdalifah

    After the sun had set and the afterglow had dissipated somewhat, the Prophet ﷺ left Arafat for Muzdalifah, by way of al-Ma’zimayn with Usama ibn Zayd seated behind him. Al-Ma’ziman are two mountains between Arafat and Muzdalifah and are today known as al-Akhshabain.

    As he set off, he lifted his right hand, with his palm facing upwards and said: “People, remain calm and proceed easily.” When he heard the hurried jostling of the people behind him he pointed with his whip and called: “Be calm, oh people! May God’s tranquility be upon you. Piety is not measured by the speed of a horse or a camel.” He pulled the reins of his she-camel so tightly that its head its head was touching the middle of his saddle, so as to control it, and when he went uphill, he loosened his grip on the rein so that it could ascend without difficulty. When he was crowded by the people around him, he continued at a trotting pace but whenever he came across an open space, relatively free of people, he made the camel walk briskly. During his journey, the Prophet ﷺ proclaimed Talbiyah abundantly.26Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1671; Muslim, Hadith No. 1218 & 1282; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3018 & 3019; Ahmad, Hadith No. 2507, 21756 & 21760.

    As he reached Shi’b al-Idhkhir pathway, on the left side of the road between the two mountains as Muzdalifah approaches, he dismounted his camel and descended to a low place where he relieved himself. When he came back, Usama provided him with water with which he performed a light ablution. Usama asked whether they should stop for prayer to which the Prophet ﷺ replied: “The place of prayer is ahead of you (at Muzdalifah)”. They then mounted the camel and proceeded to Muzdalifah.27Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 139, 1667 & 1670; Muslim, Hadith No. 1280 & 1282; Ahmad, Hadith No. 21814.

    The companions, out of their immense love for the Prophet ﷺ, would want to emulate everything that he did. Anas ibn Sirin I narrates:

    I was with Abdullah Ibn Umar at Arafat and when he rested, I rested with him until the Imam came and he prayed Dhuhr and Asr with him. Then he did Wuquf with him, as did I and some companions of mine, until the Imam went forth (from Arafat to Muzdalifah). We proceeded with him until we reached a narrow path near al-Ma’zimayn, where he halted his camel and so did we, as we thought that he wanted to pray. His servant, who was holding his animal, said: ‘He does not intend to pray, but he remembered that the Prophet ﷺ relieved himself when he reached this place, so he (Ibn Umar) loves to relieve himself here.'28Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1668; Ahmed, Hadith No. 6151.

    Muzdalifah

    An old picture of Muzdalifah

    Upon reaching Muzdalifah, he stopped at the location where Masjid al-Mashar al Haram is situated today, in close proximity to Mount Quzah. The hillock was named after a pre-Islamic deity of thunder, and fires would be lit in this area by the tribe of Quraysh during the age of Jahiliyyah. They would often quarrel with other Arab tribes who would station themselves at Arafat during the pilgrimage, advocating that they, the Quraysh, were the chosen people of God. He instructed his companions: “The whole of Muzdalifah is a standing place, except for the middle of Muhassar.”29Malik, Hadith No. 175.

    Maghrib & Isha

    After alighting from his camel, the Prophet ﷺ performed Wudhu and instructed Bilal I to recite the Adhan. He performed a complete ablution this time, having previously performed a light ablution on the way to Muzdalifah, washing each body part just the once.30Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 139; Muslim, Hadith No. 1280; Ahmad, Hadith No. 21814.

    The Prophet ﷺ and his companions then offered the two prayers of Maghrib and Isha, shortening the latter to two Rakats, during the time of Isha. No supererogatory prayers (Sunan) were performed between Maghrib and Isha. Jabir ibn Abdullah I reported:

    The Messenger of Allah ﷺ moved until he came to Muzdalifah, where he prayed Maghrib and Isha with one Adhan and two Iqamas, and he did not offer any prayer in between them.31Muslim, Hadith No. 1288; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 657.

    Another narration states that there was a short interval between Maghrib and Isha during which people tied up their camels. Usama ibn Zayd I narrates:

    He prayed Maghrib and then everyone tied up the camels in their places, before Iqama was given and Isha was prayed.32Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 139;

    Upon completion of the prayers, the people retrieved their luggage from their camels.

    The practice of Abdullah ibn Umar I, narrated by Abdur Rahman ibn Yazid I was as follows:

    Abdullah performed the Hajj and we reached Muzdalifa at or about the time of the Isha prayer. He ordered a man to pronounce the Adhan and Iqama and then he offered the Maghrib prayer and offered two Rakats after it. Then he asked for his supper and took it, and then, I think, he ordered a man to pronounce the Adhan and Iqama for the Isha prayer.33Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1675 & 1683.

    His methodology differed slightly to that of the Prophet’s ﷺ as the two Rakats of Sunnah after Maghrib were observed and a second Adhan for Isha was pronounced thereafter.

    Concessions

    The Prophet ﷺ made concessions for individuals who were regarded as weak, such as women, children, the elderly and infirm, to leave Muzdalifah for Mina during the night in order to avoid the morning rush, so they could perform Rami with greater ease. One of the wives of the Prophet ﷺ, Sawda bint Zama J, who was elderly and slow in movement, sought special dispensation from the Prophet ﷺ to proceed to Mina before the departure of the rest of the pilgrims. The Prophet ﷺ approved her request and she departed from Muzdalifah early. Aisha J narrates:

    Sawda asked the permission of the Prophet ﷺ to leave early before the rush of the people. She was a slow woman and he gave her permission, so she departed (from Muzdalifah) before the rush of the people. We remained at Muzdalifah until dawn, and set out with the Prophet ﷺ but I suffered so much that I wished I had taken the permission of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ as Sawda had done, and that would have been dearer to me than any other happiness.34Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1681; Muslim, Hadith No. 1290.

    The Night

    The Prophet ﷺ then went to sleep until shortly before the break of dawn, electing not to engage in night worship as he normally did. He was most certainly exhausted, having spent the day worshipping, travelling and teaching. Upon waking, he instructed his uncle, al-Abbas ibn Abdul Mutallib I, to escort certain members of his family to Mina prior to the break of dawn, so that they would be able to observe Fajr in Mina before performing Rami of Jamrat al-Aqaba, thereby avoiding the surge of pilgrims departing Muzdalifah after Fajr. This group consisted of his two wives, Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (Umm Habiba) and Hind bint Abi Umayya (Umm Salama) J, and the young children of the Abdul Mutallib clan, which included Abdullah ibn Abbas I.35Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1677, 1678 & 1856; Muslim, Hadith No. 1293 & 1294; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 892. Asma bint Abu Bakr J also left early. Her servant, Abdullah I, narrates:

    Asma, when she was in her dwelling place at Muzdalifah, asked me whether the moon had set. I said: ‘No.’ She prayed for some time, and again asked: ‘My son, has the moon set?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ She then said that we should set out for Mina, so we departed and proceeded until she threw pebbles at the Jamrat (Jamrat-al-Aqaba), before she returned to her dwelling place and offered the morning prayer. I said to her: ‘Respected lady, we set forth in the very early part of dawn, when it was dark’. She replied: ‘My son, there is no harm in it; Allah’s Apostle ﷺ had granted permission for women to so.'36Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1679; Muslim, Hadith No. 1291.

    Fajr & Wuquf

    Masjid Mashar al-Haram in 1908

    After dawn broke on Saturday the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, the Prophet ﷺ performed Fajr Salah with one Adhan and one Iqama, just as the time for the prayer had begun. He observed the prayer slightly earlier than what he was normally accustomed to. Abdullah ibn Masud I narrates:

    I never saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ offer any prayer except at the proper time, apart from Maghrib and Isha in Muzdalifah and Fajr on that day, which he offered before the usual time.37Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1682; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3038.

    After completing the prayer, he mounted his she-camel and ascended Mount Quzah, which overlooked the mosque, where he turned towards the Qibla and raised his hands in supplication until it had become light. He thanked, praised and glorified God, all the while reciting the Talbiyah, thereby fulfilling the divine instruction:

    فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ

    But when you depart from Arafat, remember Allah at al-Mashar al-Haram.
    [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:198]

    During this supplication, the Prophet ﷺ smiled gleefully. Upon seeing this, Abu Bakr I and Umar I asked him why he was cheerful. Al-Abbas ibn Mirdas al-Sulami I narrates:

    Abu Bakr and Umar said to him: ‘May our mother and father be ransomed for you, this is not a time when you usually laugh. May Allah make your years full of laughter, why are you smiling?’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘The enemy of Allah, Iblis, when he came to know that Allah answered my prayer and pardoned my nation, took some dust and started to sprinkle it on his head, uttering cries of woe and dejection, and what I saw of his anguish made me laugh.'38Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3013.

    The supplication that the Prophet ﷺ made for his Ummah at Arafat had now been accepted.

    Meeting a Companion

    One companion, Urwah ibn Mudarris I asked the Prophet ﷺ a question. He narrates:

    I came to the Prophet ﷺ in Muzdalifah and said: ‘Messenger of God, I have come from the mountains of Tayy. I fatigued myself on and exhausted my mount. By God, I found no hill, except that I stopped on it (to declare my intention). Is my pilgrimage valid?’ The Prophet ﷺ replied: ‘Whoever performs this prayer (Fajr at Muzdalifah) with us, remaining here until we move on, and has stopped at Arafat during the day or night, has completed his pilgrimage and achieved his purpose.'39Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1950; al-Nasa’i Hadith No. 3041; al-Tirmidhi Hadith No. 891; Ahmad, Hadith No. 16208.

    Journey to Mina

    Mina in 1889

    The Prophet ﷺ then departed for Mina just before sunrise, with al-Fadl seated behind him on his she-camel. The practice of the Prophet ﷺ to leave before sunrise opposed that of the pagans during the days of Jahiliyyah, who would depart after sunrise. The Prophet ﷺ said: “They would go on from Muzdalifah when the sun rose over the mountain tops like mens’ turbans upon their heads. Our procedure is different from theirs.” The pagans used to say: “Let the sun shine on Mount Thabir (the highest mountain in Muzdalifah) so we may go forth.” This custom was altered by the Prophet.40Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1684; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 896; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3022.

    The Prophet ﷺ moved at a modest pace and instructed his companions to remain calm. Some eager and fit young men from the Quraysh, including Usama ibn Zayd I, decided to jog to Mina, arriving at their destination before the rest of the pilgrims.

    During the journey, a woman from the tribe of Khath’am approached the Prophet ﷺ in order to ask him a question. Al-Fadl, a handsome young man about 20 years of age, with beautiful hair and a fair complexion, was attracted by the beauty of the woman and began to gaze at her. The Prophet ﷺ, upon noticing that his cousin was looking at the woman, placed his hand on al-Fadl’s chin and turned his face away in order to avert his gaze. Addressing the Prophet ﷺ, the woman asked: “My father has come under Allah’s obligation to perform Hajj but he is very old man and cannot sit properly on a mount. Shall I perform Hajj on his behalf ? The Prophet ﷺ replied in the affirmative.41Muslim, Hadith No. 1218.

    Similarly, a man asked the Prophet ﷺ: “My mother is an old woman and she cannot sit firmly in the saddle. If I fasten her to the mount, I fear that I may kill her.” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Don’t you think that if your mother owed a debt you would pay it off?” He said: “Yes.” He said: “Then perform Hajj on behalf of your mother.”42Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2643.

    When the Prophet ﷺ reached Wadi al-Muhassar, he lightly prodded his she-camel so that it would move faster. He did so because this was the location where the army of Abraha was destroyed by God as it marched towards Makkah to destroy the Kaaba, as mentioned in Surah al-Fil and it was a tradition of the Prophet ﷺ not to spend more time than necessary in places where the opponents of God had suffered His wrath.43Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; al-Bayhaqi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 126.

    Collecting Pebbles

    At Wadi al-Muhassar, he instructed his young cousin, al-Fadl ibn Abbas I, to collect some pebbles for him for the purpose of performing Rami of Jamrat al-Aqaba. Al-Fadl gathered seven pebbles that were the size of date seeds and placed them in his hand. The Prophet ﷺ dusted the pebbles, before holding them aloft in a throwing position and said: “Perform Rami with pebbles like these. O people, beware of extremism within religious matters, for those who came before you were ruined as a result of extremism within religious matters.”44Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 30523057 & 3058; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3029; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1794, 1821, 1851 & 3248; Ibn Khuzaymah, Hadith No. 2873.

    From Muhassar, the Prophet ﷺ then took the middle route leading to Jamrat al-Aqaba, situated on the far side of Mina, reaching his destination after sunrise. The middle route refers to the path between the routes of Dhab and al-Ma’zimayn. Throughout the journey, the Talbiyah was recited frequently.

    Yawm al-Nahr – 10th of Dhul Hijjah

    Rami of Jamrat al-Aqaba

    Jamrat al-Aqaba in a previous era

    Upon arrival, in mid-morning, the Prophet ﷺ went to Jamrat al-Aqaba and positioned himself in a manner where Mina was to his right and Makkah to his left. Still mounted on his camel, he ceased uttering the Talbiyah and began to stone the pillar, reciting Takbir as he threw each of his seven stones.45Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1544 & 1683; Muslim, Hadith No. 1281 & 1298; Ibn Khuzaymah, Hadith No. 2887. He was accompanied by Bilal I and Usama ibn Zayd I who held the reins of his she-camel, with the latter shading him from the heat with a garment. Sulaiman ibn Amr ibn al-Ahwas I narrates on the authority of his mother:

    I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ throwing pebbles at the Jamrat from the bottom of the valley while he was riding (on a camel). He was uttering Takbir (Allah is most great) with each pebble. A man behind him was shading him. I asked about the man and they said: He is al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas. The people crowded and the Prophet ﷺ said: ‘O people, do not kill each other. When you throw pebbles at the Jamrat, throw small pebbles.46Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 18341966.

    While he was performing Rami, people crowded around him, although they weren’t rebuked for doing so. Qudamah ibn Abdullah ibn al-Kilabi I narrates:

    The Messenger of God, cast at the mound at al-Aqaba from the middle of the valley on the day of the sacrifice, mounted upon a reddish-hued camel he owned. And there was no striking, no pushing away and no saying: ‘Keep away! Keep away!'47Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 903; Ahmad, Hadith No. 15410.

    The Prophet ﷺ, with seeming foreknowledge of his demise, then said the following to his companions, as narrated by Jabir I:

    I saw Allah’s Apostle ﷺ flinging pebbles while riding his camel on the Day of Nahr, and he was saying: ‘Learn the Hajj rituals from me, for I do not know whether I will make the pilgrimage after this Hajj of mine.'48Muslim, Hadith No. 1297; Ahmad, Hadith No. 16087, 16088.

    Sermon at Mina

    The eastern Mina valley in 1887

    During the course of the morning, still seated on his camel, the Prophet ﷺ stopped between the Jamarat and informed his companion Jarir ibn Abdullah al-Bujali I, who was a tall man with a loud voice, to gather the companions as he wanted to address them. Eager to listen to the words of the Prophet ﷺ, some stood whilst others sat down as they congregated.

    After praising God, the Prophet ﷺ said: “People, acknowledge that time had taken its original form on the day that God created the heavens and the earth. A year consists of 12 months, four of which are sacred. Three of these are consecutive: Dhul Qadah, Dhul Hijjah and Muharram, and the fourth is Rajab, which falls between Jumada al-Thani and Sha’ban.” The Prophet ﷺ then recited the Quranic verses:

    إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ۚ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ 

    Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him].
    [Surah al-Tawbah, 9:36]

    إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

    Indeed, the postponing [of restriction within sacred months] is an increase in disbelief by which those who have disbelieved are led [further] astray. They make it lawful one year and unlawful another year to correspond to the number made unlawful by Allah and [thus] make lawful what Allah has made unlawful. Made pleasing to them is the evil of their deeds; and Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.
    [Surah al-Tawbah, 9:37]

    The Prophet ﷺ then asked the people which month they were in. They said: “God and His messenger know best”. He kept silent for a moment until he asked: “Is it not Dhul Hijjah” They said “Yes.” He asked: “What city is this?” They said: “God and His messenger know best. He again kept silent until he said: “Is it not the city (of Makkah)?” They affirmed that it was. He then asked: “What day is this?” They again said: “God and His messenger know best.” He was silent for a short while before he replied: “Is it not the Day of Sacrifice?” They said that it was. He then added: “God has declared your blood unlawful, and your property and your reputation are as sacred as this holy month of yours, in this land of yours, in this day of yours, until you meet your lord. Surely you will meet your lord, and He will ask you about your deeds. Have I delivered God’s message? My Lord, be my witness.”

    “I shall tell you what a true Muslim is. A Muslim is one who keeps other Muslims safe from his tongue and hand. A true believer is one whom people trust with their lives and their property. A migrant for God’s sake is one who abandons all sins, and a striver for God’s cause is one who strives to maintain the path of obedience to God. Whenever harm is inflicted, it will come back to the one who carries it out. Let no parent harm his child and no child harm his parent. Do not make tyrants of yourselves or return to disbelief and kill one another. Have I delivered God’s message? My Lord, be my witness.”

    “O people, know that Satan has despaired of being worshipped in this land of yours, but he is satisfied if he is obeyed in some minor act of evil which you may consider trivial. Guard yourself against him, lest he spoils your faith. Indeed, every Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. All Muslims are brethren. It is not lawful for a Muslim to take from his brother except that which he has given him willingly, so do not wrong yourselves. O people, listen and obey, even if your ruler is a black Abyssinian slave with cuts in his face. As long as his governance is in accordance with God’s book, then listen to him and obey him. Three matters must remain pure in a Muslim’s heart: carrying out actions purely for the sake of God, giving sincere advice to people in authority, and remaining with the Muslim community, for the community encompasses all.”

    The Prophet ﷺ then spoke at length about the Dajjal. He said: “Each one of God’s messengers had warned their communities against him. Nuh and the Prophets that came after him warned their people against him. He will emerge from among you. Indeed, your Lord is not one-eyed while the Dajjal is blind in his right eye. This eye looks like a protruding grape.”

    The Prophet ﷺ then concluded by saying: “I do not know whether I will meet you after this day. May God have mercy on anyone who listens to my words, understands them and conveys them to others. A person may have scholarly knowledge but that doesn’t make him scholar, and a person may deliver knowledge to someone who is a better scholar than him. Let those of you who are present inform those who are absent. Perhaps some of those who receive the message have better understanding than some of those who have heard it.”

    The Prophet ﷺ then lifted his head to the sky and said: “Have I delivered my message? Have I delivered my message?” The people said: “Yes”. The Prophet ﷺ then lifted his hands up facing the sky and said: “My Lord, bear witness.” He repeated this three times. During the course of the speech, he repeatedly asked: “Do you hear?” And regularly called out: “My nation, have I delivered my message to you?”49Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 121, 1741, 4403, 4405, 4406, 5550 & 6869; Muslim, Hadith No. 65, 1679 & 1838; Ahmad, Hadith No. 2036, 16649, 19754, 20695, 23234.

    Answering Questions

    Some of the pilgrims sensed that the sermon was that of a person who was bidding farewell. One of the companions asked him: “What do you ask of us, messenger of God?” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “Worship God alone, offer your five daily prayers, fast during Ramadan, pay the Zakat due on your property with tranquility and obey your leaders. If you do so, you will be admitted into Paradise.”50Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 616; Ahmad, Hadith No. 22161 & 22258; Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 4563.

    Some Bedouins approached the Prophet ﷺ and asked him: “Messenger of God, should we make use of medical treatment?” He replied: “Yes, make use of medical treatment, for God has not created a disease without appointing a remedy for it, with the exception of one.” They asked: “Which one, messenger of God?” He said: “Old age.” They also asked: ‘”What is the best thing people have been given?” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “Good ethics.”51Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Hadith No. 291; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2015 & 3855; Ahmad, Hadith No. 18454.

    Place of Encampment

    Masjid al-Khayf in 1907

    The Prophet ﷺ then went to his place of encampment in Mina, situated where Masjid al-Khayf stands today. He housed the Muhajirin to his right and the Ansar to his left, with other pilgrims staying around them. Abdur Rahman ibn Mu’adh I narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ addressed the people at Mina, before showing them to their dwellings. He then said: ‘The Muhajirun (Emigrants) should stay here’, and he made a sign to the right side of the Qibla, ‘and the Ansar (Helpers) here’, and he made a sign to the left side of the Qibla. ‘The people should stay around them’, he added.52Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1951; al-Bayhaqi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 138; Ahmad, Hadith No. 16588 & 23177.

    His companions asked him if he’d like a structure built to provide him with shade, but he refused. Aisha J narrates:

    We said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, should we not build you a house in Mina that will be a means of shade for you?’ He said: ‘No, Mina is just a stopping place for whoever gets there first.'53Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2019; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 881; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3006 & 3007.

    Animal Sacrifice

    Pilgrims with their sacrificial animals in Mina

    He then headed to the place of sacrifice to offer his Hady. It was narrated from Jabir I that the Prophet ﷺ said:

    All of Mina is a place of sacrifice and all the pathways and roads of Makkah are places of sacrifice.54Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1937; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3048; Malik, Hadith No. 886.

    According to the research of the scholar Nur al-Din Ali al-Qari V, the place of sacrifice was in close proximity to where the Prophet’s ﷺ was staying in Mina.55Nur al-Din Ali al-Qari, Mirqat al-Mafatih. With the modern expansion of Masjid al-Khayf, this place of sacrifice is now situated within the confines of the mosque, although it is no longer marked out as it once used to be.

    The Prophet ﷺ then asked Ali I to come forward. The Prophet ﷺ had brought 63 camels with him from Madinah, whilst Ali had brought 37 from Yemen, making 100 sacrificial animals in total. The Prophet ﷺ slaughtered 63 himself and ordered Ali to sacrifice the remained. Jabir ibn Abdullah I narrates:

    The total number of those sacrificial animals brought by Ali from the Yemen and of those brought by the Prophet ﷺ from Madinah was one hundred. The Prophet ﷺ went to the place of sacrifice and sacrificed 63 (camels) with his own hand. Then he gave the remaining number to Ali who sacrificed them, which he shared with him.56Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 30743076; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1905; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 815.

    Scholars have mentioned that the rationale behind offering 63 sacrificial animals was that the number was equal to that of his age. In other words, he offered one camel in gratitude for each one of his years.57Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah.

    Camels were then brought forward to the Prophet ﷺ in groups. The front left leg of each camel was tied up and they remained upright by standing on their other legs before they were slaughtered. During the sacrifice, the companions witnessed a strange spectacle. Each camel was trying to get ahead as they moved towards the Prophet ﷺ, as if they eager to be sacrificed by his blessed hand.58Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1765; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3158; Ahmad, Hadith No. 19075; al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 221.

    The Prophet ﷺ then gave Ali specific instructions regarding the meat of the animals. Ali I narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ ordered me to supervise the slaughtering of the camels and to distribute their meat, skin and hide to charity and not to give anything (of their carcasses) to the butcher as wages for slaughtering, saying: ‘We would pay him ourselves.'59Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1717 & 2299; Muslim, Hadith No. 1317

    He also instructed Ali to save some meat for themselves as well as giving his companions permission to take from the sacrifice. The Prophet ﷺ said: “Take a small piece from each camel and prepare it in one pot so we can eat its meat and drink its soup.”60Ahmad, Hadith No. 894, 1002,1325, 1374 & 2359.

    The Prophet ﷺ sacrificed one cow of behalf of each of his wives that were present with him on the pilgrimage. Aisha J said:

    On the day of Nahr, beef was brought to us. I asked, ‘What is this?’ The reply was, ‘Allah’s Apostle ﷺ has slaughtered (sacrifices) on behalf of his wives.61Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1709, & 1720; Muslim, Hadith No. 1319; Ahmad, Hadith No. 26109.

    The companions also carried out the Hady, with each group of seven people sacrificing a camel or a cow between them.62Muslim, Hadith No. 1213. The Prophet ﷺ gave them permission to partake in it and store it, so the companions ate from it whilst they were in Mina and also ate from it during their return journey to Madinah.

    Shaving the Head

    A pilgrim getting his head shaved

    After the sacrifice, the Prophet ﷺ called for a barber to shave his head with a razor. The companion who had the honour of shaving his head was Ma’mar ibn Abdullah al-Adwi I. He narrates:

    During the Farewell Hajj, I had the honour of serving the Prophet’s conveyance. When the Prophet finished with the sacrifices at Mina, he said ‘Come, shave my head’. I brought a blade and stood by the Prophet ﷺ. He looked at me and said in good humour: ‘The Messenger of Allah is putting his head in your hands at the time when you have a blade in them!’ I replied: ‘By Allah O Messenger of God, this is Allah’s greatest favour upon me.’

    The Prophet ﷺ then distributed his blessed hair to his companions. Anas ibn Malik I reports:

    The Prophet ﷺ stoned the Jamrat and then performed the animal sacrifice. After that he went into his tent and called for the barber, who shaved the hair from the right side of his blessed head. The Prophet ﷺ called Abu Talha al-Ansari and gave him the hair. The barber then shaved the hair from the left side of his head and the Prophet ﷺ again gave it to Abu Talha, instructing him to distribute it amongst the people.63Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 171; Muslim, Hadith No. 1305; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 912; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1981.

    Abu Talhah, his wife Umm Sulaym and her son Anas ibn Malik M were all very close to the Prophet ﷺ and this was perhaps a parting gift. Abu Talhah also later had the honour of digging the Prophet’s ﷺ grave after his demise. This gift may have been a signal to indicate that he was the one to have this honour.

    Anas also reports the conduct of the companions during the haircut:

    I saw the Prophet ﷺ and the barber was shaving his head. The companions had encircled him not wanting any of his hair to fall except into a man’s hand.64Muslim, Hadith No. 2325.

    It was the custom of the companions to sit around the Prophet ﷺ and collect his hair whilst he was having a haircut, not just when he was on pilgrimage, but throughout his life. He would only ever shave his head in its entirety whilst performing Hajj or Umrah and apart from this, would always have hair on his head.

    The great scholar Imam Muhammad al-Zarqani al-Maliki V explains the rationale behind the Prophet ﷺ distributing his hair:

    The Prophet ﷺ distributed the blessed hair amongst the companions so that blessing would remain amongst them and it could become a means of remembering him. In this, the Prophet ﷺ also signalled towards his impending demise.65Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah.

    Some of the companions got their hair cut short whilst others shaved their head completely. The Prophet ﷺ supplicated three times for those who had their heads shaved and once for those who had their hair trimmed. Abdullah ibn Umar I narrates:

    Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: ‘O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.’ The companions said: ‘O Messenger of God! Supplicate for those who get their hair cut short.’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.’ The companions said: ‘O Messenger of God! And supplicate for those who get their hair cut short.’ The Prophet ﷺ for a third time supplicated for those who shave their head. The companions pleaded: ‘O Messenger of God! And supplicate for those who get their hair cut short.’ The Prophet ﷺ then supplicated once for those who had trimmed their hair.66Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1727, 1728 & 1729; Muslim, Hadith No. 1301 & 1302; Ahmad, Hadith No. 17598.

    It is also reported that the Prophet ﷺ clipped his nails and distributed them amongst his companions. Muhammad ibn Zayd I reports:

    My Qurayshi friend and I were at Mina when the Prophet ﷺ was distributing meat from the sacrifices. My friend and I didn’t manage to get any of it, so the Prophet ﷺ gave me his blessed hair and gave my friend his blessed nail clippings.67Al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah.

    Leaving the State of Ihram

    After having shaved his head, the Prophet ﷺ removed the two Ihram garments and put on his ordinary clothes. His wife Aisha J then perfumed his head with musk.68Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1754; Muslim, Hadith No. 1189. Abdullah ibn Abbas said:

    When the pilgrim has stoned the Jamrat, everything becomes permissible for him except (intimacy with) women. It was asked: ‘And perfume?’ He said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ smelling strongly of musk – is it not a perfume?”69Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3041; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3084.

    Tawaf al-Ziyarah

    The Holy Kaaba in 1920

    The Prophet ﷺ then mounted his she-camel and headed to Makkah to perform Tawaf al-Ziyarah, with Usama ibn Zayd I seated behind him. Upon reaching the Kaaba, he performed Tawaf on his camel so that everybody could see him and learn the rituals from him. Jabir I reports:

    Allah’s Messenger circumambulated the House on the back of his riding camel on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage and touched the Stone with his stick so that the people could see him, and that he be conspicuous so they would be able to ask him (questions pertaining to religion) as they crowded round him.70Muslim, Hadith No. 1273.

    As he was mounted, he performed Istilam of the Hajar al-Aswad with a stick. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrates:

    In his last Hajj, the Prophet ﷺ performed Tawaf of the Kaaba riding a camel and pointed a bent-headed stick towards the Black Stone while uttering Takbir.71Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 16071612 & 1613.

    Abu al-Tufail Amir ibn Wathilah I mentioned that he also kissed the stick. He narrates:

    I saw the Prophet ﷺ performing Tawaf and touching the Hajar with his stick, before kissing the stick.72Muslim, Hadith No. 1275.

    During this Tawaf, he did not perform Raml.73Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2001.

    Zamzam

    There was once an entrance to the well of Zamzam

    The Prophet ﷺ then went to his uncle al-Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib I for a drink of water. Al-Abbas was the custodian of Siqaya, which was the privilege of providing water to pilgrims. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrates:

    Allah’s Messenger ﷺ came to the drinking place and asked for water. Al-Abbas said: ‘O Fadl! Go to your mother and bring water from her for Allah’s Messenger ﷺ.’ Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: ‘Give me water to drink.’ Al-Abbas said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger ﷺ! The people put their hands in it.’ Allah’s Messenger ﷺ again said: ‘Give me water to drink.’ So, he drank from that water.74Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1635.

    Abdullah ibn Abbas mentioned that the drink they gave to the Prophet ﷺ was Nabidh, a beverage made from dates or raisins. Ibn Abbas said:

    Allah’s Apostle ﷺ came here riding his she-camel and Usama was sitting behind him. He asked for water and we gave him a cup full of Nabidh. He drank it and gave the remaining part to Usama.75Muslim, Hadith No. 1316.

    The Prophet ﷺ then went to the well of Zamzam, where the members of the Abdul Mutallib clan were extracting water from it. Ibn Abbas narrates:

    He then went to the Well of Zamzam where the people were offering water to the others and drawing water from the well. The Prophet ﷺ said to them: ‘Carry on! You are doing a good deed.’ Then he said, ‘Were I not afraid that other people would compete with you (in drawing water from Zamzam), I would certainly take the rope and put it over this (i.e. his shoulder, to draw water).’ On saying that the Prophet ﷺ pointed to his shoulder.76Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1635.

    What the Prophet ﷺ meant by his last statement was that if he himself drew water from the well, people would consider it a Sunnah and would want to emulate him, thereby causing hardship for the Abdul Mutallib clan who would be overwhelmed and deprived of their work.

    At the well of Zamzam, the Prophet ﷺ drank its water and blessed it. Ibn Abbas again narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ came to Zamzam. We drew up a bucket for him and he drank. Then he spat into it and we poured it into Zamzam.77Ahmad.

    He drank the Zamzam water while standing. Ibn Abbas said:

    I gave the Messenger of Allah some Zamzam to drink and he drank it while standing.78Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 5617; Muslim, Hadith No. 2027; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 1882; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2964 &2965; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3422.

    He then took three sips of the water. Ibn Abbas narrates:

    The bowl of Zamzam was presented to the Prophet ﷺ. He took hold of it and put it to his mouth reciting ‘Bismillah’ and drank from it. He then raised his head and said ‘Alhamdulillah’. He then put it to his mouth again whilst reciting ‘Bismillah’ and drank from it, before raising his head and saying ‘Alhamdulillah’. He then put it to his mouth again reciting ‘Bismillah’ and drank from it, before raising his head and uttering ‘Alhamdulillah’ once again. He declared that the difference between us and the hypocrites was that they do not drink Zamzam to their full.79Al-Azraqi, Akhbar Makka.

    Dhuhr Salah

    After completing the rites of Yawm al-Nahr, the Prophet ﷺ performed the Dhuhr prayer. Abdullah ibn Umar I reported that the Prophet observed the prayer upon his return to Mina:

    Allah’s Messenger ﷺ observed Tawaf al-Ziyarah on the Day of Nahr (10th of Dhul Hijjah) and then came back and observed the noon prayer at Mina. Nafi (one of the narrators) said that Ibn Umar used to observe Tawaf al-Ziyarah on the Day of Nahr and then return and observe the noon prayer at Mina and mentioned that it was the practice of the Prophet.80Muslim, Hadith No. 1308; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1998.

    Jabir ibn Abdullah I, on the other hand, reported that he performed the prayer in Makkah, before returning to Mina.81Muslim, Hadith No. 1218. It is possible that the Prophet ﷺ performed the Dhuhr prayer in Makkah, before returning to Mina where he found his companions waiting for him, observing the prayer once again with them at the end of the afternoon.

    Return to Mina

    Mina in 1953

    At Mina, the Prophet ﷺ provided guidance to the people and answered their questions. Some companions approached the Prophet ﷺ seeking clarification about the rituals on Yawm al-Nahr. One man said: “I shaved my head before carrying out the pelting.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “Perform the pelting now, there is no harm.” Another man said: “I shaved my head before performing the animal sacrifice.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “Sacrifice the animal now, there is no harm in it.” A third man asked: “Unwittingly, I performed the animal sacrifice before pelting.” He told him: “Do the pelting now, there is no harm in it.” Another asked: “I performed Tawaf before pelting.” He replied: “There is no harm in it.” When the Prophet ﷺ was asked about anything concerning the order of rites on Yawm al-Nahr, his reply was the same for each scenario: “Do it now, there is no harm in it”.82Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 83, 1721, 1722, 1736 & 1738; Muslim, Hadith No. 1306 & 1307; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1857.

    Ayyam al-Tashreeq – 11th – 13th of Dhul Hijjah

    The Prophet ﷺ remained in Mina for a period of three days, spending Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. Whilst he was at Arafat, the Prophet ﷺ proclaimed the following in relation to the length of stay at Mina:

    The days of Mina are three: But whoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him, and whoever stays on, there is no sin on him.83Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 2975; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3044; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1949; Malik, Hadith No. 960.

    The Prophet sent a number of his companions, including Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Hurayra, Ibn Umar, Bishr ibn Suhaym, Ka’b ibn Malik, Aws ibn al-Hudthan, Abdullah ibn Hudhafah and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas M to walk through the camps in Mina and to proclaim the following message to the people:

    No one will be admitted to heaven except one who believes. The days of Mina are days of eating, drinking and glorifying God. Fasting isn’t permitted during these days.84Muslim, Hadith No. 1142; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 1719; Ahmad, Hadith No. 567, 992, 1456, 4970; al-Nasa’i, Al-Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith No. 2892, 2903.

    He dedicated his time to worship and providing guidance to the people, as well as performing Rami al-Jamarat on each of the days of Tashreeq.

    Salah

    Masjid al-Khayf in 1908

    The Prophet ﷺ performed Salah at Masjid al-Khayf, which was near his encampment, shortening each four Rakat prayer to two. In reference to the mosque, he said: “Seventy prophets offered prayers at al-Khayf mosque.”85Al-Fakihi, Akhbar Makkah, No. 2313, 2593, 2601 & 2603; al-Tabarani, Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, Hadith No. 12283; al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 2, p. 598. At the time, Masjid al-Khayf was open space and didn’t have any walls. Abdullah Ibn Abbas I narrates:

    I arrived riding a female donkey and at that time, I had just reached the age of puberty. The Prophet was leading people in prayer in Mina. There was no wall in front of him and I passed in front of some of the rows while they were offering their prayers. There, I let the donkey graze and I entered the row with nobody objecting to it.86Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 76, 493, 1857; Muslim, Hadith No. 504; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1891.

    During Fajr Salah, the Prophet ﷺ noticed two men who hadn’t joined the congregation. Yazid ibn Al-Aswad I said:

    I attended Hajj with the Prophet. I prayed the Fajr prayer with him in Masjid al-Khayf. When the Prophet finished, he turned (from the Qibla) and saw two men at the back of the people who had not prayed with him. He said, ‘Bring them to me.’ So I brought them to him while they were shuddering with fear. He said: ‘What prevented you from praying with us?’ They said: ‘O Messenger of Allah!’ We prayed at our camp.’ So he said: ‘Do not do that. If you pray in your camp then come to a mosque where there is a congregation, pray with them. That will regarded as a voluntary prayer for you.'87Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 575 & 614; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 219, al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 858.

    He added:

    People approached the Prophet and I went with them. I was very strong at the time and I continued to push my way through the crowd until I reached God’s messenger. I took his hand and placed it on my face or my chest. I’ve never felt anything cooler or better than the Prophet’s hand.88Ahmad, Hadith No. 17475 & 17476.

    Rami al-Jamarat

    An old photo of Jamrat al-Wusta

    At midday, when the sun started its decline, the Prophet ﷺ would proceed to the Jamarat to perform Rami. After pelting the first pillar, Jamrat al-Ula, he turned towards the Qibla and supplicated for an extended period of time. He then pelted the second pillar, Jamrat al-Wusta, and again supplicated for an extended period of time. After pelting the third Jamrat, Jamrat al-Aqaba, he did not supplicate.89Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1751, 1752 & 1753; Muslim, Hadith No. 1296; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1973; Ahmad, Hadith No. 5944, 6669 & 24592.

    Salim ibn Abdullah I narrates the practice of Abdullah ibn Umar I:

    Abdullah ibn Umar used to do Rami of Jamrat al-Dunya (Jamrat al-Ula) with seven small pebbles and used to recite Takbir on throwing each stone. He would then proceed further till he reached the level ground, where he would stay for a long time, facing the Qibla to invoke Allah while raising his hands. Then he would do Rami of Jamrat al-Wusta similarly and would go to the left towards the level ground, where he would stand for a long time facing the Qibla to invoke Allah while raising his hands. He would then do Rami of Jamrat al-Aqaba from the middle of the valley, but he would not stay by it. Ibn Umar used to say: ‘This is what I saw the Prophet ﷺ do.'90Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1751 &1752.

    The Prophet ﷺ spent more time supplicating after the second Jamrat than at the first. Abdullah ibn Umar narrates:

    I saw the Prophet ﷺ stand longer after the second Jamrat than at the first Jamrat.91Ahmad.

    He also performed Rami on foot during the days of Tashreeq, as opposed to performing it whilst mounted on an animal as he did on Yawm al-Nahr. Abdullah ibn Umar narrates:

    The Prophet would walk when stoning the Jimar, both going and returning.92Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 900.

    Concessions

    Concessions were allowed to some of the companions to remain in Makkah during the days of Tashreeq. The uncle of the Prophet ﷺ, al-Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib I was one of those who sought permission to remain in Makkah. Abdullah ibn Umar said:

    Al-Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib asked the Messenger of Allah ﷺ for permission to remain in Makkah on the nights of Mina, in order to provide the pilgrims with water to drink, so the Prophet ﷺ permitted him.93Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1634 & 1745; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1959; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3065.

    Similarly, shepherds were given permission to leave Mina to attend to their cattle for one of the days of Tashreeq. They were also instructed to perform the pelting of two days on the final day of Tashreeq, to make up for what they had missed. Abu’l-Baddah ibn ‘Asim I narrates that his father said:

    The Messenger of Allah granted a concession to some camel herders, allowing them to leave Mina for a day. He permitted them to stone the Jamarat on Yawm al-Nahr, then to combine the stoning of two days after the sacrifice, so that they could do it on one of the two days.94Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1975; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 955; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3037; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3069.

    Sermon

    The Prophet ﷺ delivered another address during the days of Tashreeq, conveying a message that was similar to his previous sermons during the pilgrimage. Ibn Abi Najih I reports:

    We saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ addressing the people in the middle of the Tashreeq days while we were staying near his mount. This is the address of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ which he gave at Mina.95Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1952.

    Revelation of Surah al-Nasr

    Whilst he was at Mina, Surah al-Nasr was revealed to the Prophet ﷺ. Abdullah ibn Umar narrates:

    This Surah was revealed to the Prophet ﷺ at Mina on the middle day of Tashreeq during the Farewell Hajj and. Through it, he became aware of his impending departure. The Prophet ﷺ called for his conveyance, al-Qaswa, and mounted it. He then stopped at Aqabah and gave a sermon. Only Allah knows how many Muslims were present there.96Musnad al-Bazzar, Hadith No. 6135; al-Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith No. 9672.

    According to the following narration, this was the final Surah to be revealed as a complete chapter. Ubaidullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utbah I narrated:

    Ibn Abbas said to me: ‘Do you know the last Surah which was revealed in the Quran as a whole?’ I said: ‘Yes, (the Surah that begins with) When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest.’ Thereupon, he said: ‘You have told the truth.'97Muslim, Hadith No. 3024.

    Departure from Makkah

    Makkah in 1887

    The Prophet ﷺ remained in Mina until Tuesday the 13th of Dhul Hijjah, returning to Makkah with his companions after having performed Rami for the final time. The pelting was performed at midday before the time of Dhuhr.

    Stay at Wadi al-Muhassab

    After leaving Mina, the Prophet ﷺ stayed at Wadi al-Muhassab, a valley situated between Mina and Makkah, also known as al-Abtah or Khayf Bani Kinanah. It was the same place in which he encamped between the 4th and 8th of Dhul Hijjah, after having completed his Umrah. Here, he offered four prayers, then rested during part of the night. Anas ibn Malik I narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ offered the Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers and slept for a while at a place called al-Muhassab, before riding to the Kaaba and performing Tawaf round it.98Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1756; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2013.

    Abdul Aziz ibn Rufai I narrates:

    I asked Anas bin Malik: ‘Tell me what you remember from Allah’s Messenger ﷺ (regarding these questions): Where did he offer the Dhuhr and Asr prayers on the day of Tarwiya (8th day of Dhul Hijjah)?’ He replied, ‘At Mina.’ I asked, ‘Where did he offer the Asr prayer on the day of Nafr (i.e. departure from Mina)?’ He replied, ‘At Al- Abtah,’ and then added, ‘You should do as your leaders do.'99Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1653 & 1763; Muslim, Hadith No. 1309; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2997; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1912.

    Abu Rafi I, who was looking after the Prophet’s luggage, set up his tent in al-Muhassab. He reports:

    Allah’s Messenger ﷺ did not command me to stop at al-Abtah when be departed from Mina, but I came and set up his tent of my own accord before he alighted here.100Muslim, Hadith No. 1313; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2009.

    It was also the practice of some of the companions including Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali and Abdullah ibn Umar M to alight in al-Muhassab after departing from Mina, where they would observe the prayers and rest for a period of time, as the Prophet ﷺ had done.101Muslim, Hadith No. 1310; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3069; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 921.

    The Prophet ﷺ chose to camp here, as he had also done after the conquest of Makkah, because he wanted to show his gratitude to God after he was granted victory over the Quraysh and its allies of the Banu Kinanah who boycotted Banu Hashim, the Prophet’s own clan and Banu Muttalib, the clan of his relatives. It was a social and economic boycott, in which they specified that they would not trade nor intermarry with the Banu Hashim and Banu al-Muttalib until they handed over the Prophet ﷺ. Al-Muhassab was the very same place that the boycott was put into effect. Abu Huraira I narrates:

    On the Day of Nahr at Mina, the Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Tomorrow we shall stay at Khayf Bani Kinanah where the pagans had taken an oath of disbelief.’ He meant (by that place) al-Muhassab where the Quraysh tribe and Bani Kinanah concluded a contract against Bani Hashim and Bani al-Muttalib that they would not intermarry with them or deal with them in business until they handed the Prophet ﷺ over to them.102Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 15891590,3058, 3882 & 7479; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2942.

    Hafiz Ibn Kathir V provides further commentary on the wisdom behind the stay at al-Muhassab:

    The Prophet ﷺ taught his companions that the last act a pilgrim is to undertake should be the Tawaf of the Kaaba, a fact the people were previously ignorant to, as Ibn Abbas alludes to. The Prophet ﷺ and his companions thus intended to perform the Tawaf, known as Tawaf al-Wida (the Farewell Tawaf). They left Mina after Zawwal, but by then there wasn’t enough time to journey to Makkah and perform Tawaf, nor was it possible to return to Madinah, for there was a great rush of people en route. Therefore, the Prophet ﷺ spent the night outside Makkah, at the place where the Quraysh took an oath against the Banu Hashim and Banu Muttalib. Allah prevented them from being successful. Rather, he humiliated and disappointed them by aiding his Prophet ﷺ and giving dominance to his mission, elevating his repute and completing the religion. On completing the Hajj, he returned here, where the Quraysh had vowed to oppress, wrong and alienate him.103Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah.

    Aisha’s Umrah

    Masjid Aisha as it was previously

    The Mother of the Believers, Aisha J, was upset at the fact that she wasn’t able to perform Umrah as a result of menstruation. She said:

    I got my menses and could not perform Tawaf round the Kaaba. So when it was the night of Hasba (i.e. when we stopped at al-Muhassab), I said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger ﷺ! Everyone is returning after having performed Hajj and Umrah, but I’m returning after having performed only the Hajj.’ He said, ‘Didn’t you perform Tawaf around the Kaaba the night we reached Makkah?’ I replied in the negative. He said, ‘Go with your brother to Taneem and assume the Ihram for Umrah.104Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 116.

    The Prophet ﷺ summoned her brother, Abdur Rahman ibn Abu Bakr I, to accompany her on her Umrah. She narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ called Abdur Rahman and said, ‘Leave the Haram with your sister and let her assume Ihram for Umrah. After both of you have finished the Tawaf, I will be waiting here for you.’ We came back at midnight and the Prophet ﷺ asked us, ‘Have you finished?’ I replied in the affirmative. He announced the departure and the people set out for the journey with some of them having performed the Tawaf of the Kaaba before the morning prayer. After that, the Prophet ﷺ set out for Madinah.105Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1556, 1561, 1638, 1785, 1787 & 1788; Muslim, Hadith No. 1211 & 1213; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1710, 14942, 24159.

    She also narrates her journey to Taneem:

    I rode behind Abdur Rahman on his camel. I recall that as I was young, I felt sleepy and my head would fall and my face would touch the back of the saddle. It was a very hot night, so much so that my head covering would fall off my neck. My brother would hold my leg and hit it against the camel. We reached Taneem where I started the Umrah in lieu of the Umrah that people performed after entering Makkah.106Ahmad, Hadith No. 1710, 14942, 24159.

    Tawaf al-Wida

    Pilgrims performing Tawaf in 1925

    After she returned to the camp in al-Muhassab after midnight, the Prophet ﷺ ordered his companions to go to Makkah in order to perform Tawaf al-Wida before dawn. The Prophet ﷺ performed Tawaf al-Wida and led the Fajr congregation in Masjid al-Haram thereafter, during which he was reciting Surah al-Tur.

    One of the Prophet’s ﷺ wives, Hind bint Abi Umayya (Umm Salama) J, performed Tawaf on a mount due to an illness. She narrates:

    I informed Allah’s Messenger ﷺ that I was sick. He said, ‘Perform Tawaf while riding behind the people.’ So, I performed the Tawaf while Allah’s Messenger ﷺ was offering the prayer beside the Kaaba and was reciting Surah al-Tur.107Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 4641619 & 1633; Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2925, 29262927; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2961.

    After completing two Rakats Nafl, the Prophet ﷺ came to the Multazam where he supplicated whilst placing his blessed face and chest against it. Amr ibn Shuaib I narrates from his grandfather:

    I performed Tawaf with Abdullah ibn Amr, and when we had finished seven circuits, we prayed two Rakats at the back of the Kaaba. I said: ‘Why do you not seek refuge with Allah from the fire?’ He said: ‘I seek refuge with Allah from the fire.’ Then he went and touched the corner and stood between the (Black) Stone and the door (of the Kaaba), clinging with his chest, hands and cheek against it. Then he said: ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ do this.’108Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2962; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1899.

    The Prophet ﷺ did the same after the conquest of Makkah. Abdur Rahman ibn Safwan I narrates:

    When the Prophet ﷺ conquered Makkah, I said (to myself): ‘I will put on my garments, as my house was on the road and I will wait and see what the Prophet ﷺ does.’ So I went out and I saw that the Prophet ﷺ and his companions had come out from the Kaaba and embraced the House from its entrance (al-Bab) to al-Hatim. They had placed their cheeks against the House and the Prophet ﷺ was in the midst of them.109Ahmad, Hadith No. 15124; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1898.

    Tawaf al-Wida was the last rite the pilgrims were to perform before leaving Makkah, although menstruating women were excused from carrying it out.110Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1755. One of the Prophet’s wives, Safiyya bint Huyayy J, felt dejected as her menstruation had began. Aisha J narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ intended to return home after having performed Hajj. He saw Safiya standing at the entrance of her tent, depressed because she got her menses. The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘Aqra Halqa!’ an expression used in the Quraysh dialect, meaning ‘you will hold us back.’ The Prophet ﷺ then asked her: ‘Did you perform the Tawaf al-Ziyarah on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhul Hijjah)?” She said: ‘Yes.’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Then you can leave with us.'111Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 328, 15611757, 176217714401, 53296157; Muslim Hadith No. 1211; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 943; Malik, Hadith No. 932 & 933; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2003.

    Zamzam

    There was once a building near the Kaaba where Zamzam water was dispensed

    Prior to leaving for Madinah, the Prophet ﷺ took some Zamzam water back with him, as was his custom when leaving Makkah. Hisham ibn Urwah I narrates that his father said:

    When Aisha would complete the Hajj or Umrah, she would carry some Zamzam water back with her and say: ‘Indeed the Messenger of Allah used to carry it back with him.'112Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 963.

    He would carry the water in small vessels and leather waterskins and would sprinkle some over the sick and have them drink it. He would also give some to his grandsons, Hasan and Husayn M, and gift some to others. His love for Zamzam was so great, that he would order it from Makkah. On one occasion, he wrote to Suhayl ibn Amr I requesting Zamzam water:

    He said: ‘If my letter reaches you at night, do not wait until morning, and if it reaches you during the day, do not wait until evening before sending me Zamzam water.’ He sent him two containers full on the back of a camel, whilst he was in Madinah before the Conquest of Makkah.113Al-Fakihi, Akhbar Makkah.

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    19. Muslim, Hadith No. 1123.
    20. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1266 & 1851; Muslim, Hadith No. 1206; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1850 & 1914.
    21. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 2975; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3016; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3015; Ahmad, Hadith No. 18774.
    22. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1396 & 5983; Muslim, Hadith No. 13; Ahmad, Hadith No. 15883 & 27153; al-Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, Hadith No. 10620.
    23. Ibn Abi Shaybah, Al-Musannaf, Hadith No. 34408; al-Fakihi, Akhbar Makkah, 780; al-Tabari, Jami’ al-Bayan, vol.8, p. 81.
    24. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 4407; Muslim, Hadith No. 3017; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3043.
    25. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1686.
    26. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1671; Muslim, Hadith No. 1218 & 1282; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3018 & 3019; Ahmad, Hadith No. 2507, 21756 & 21760.
    27. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 139, 1667 & 1670; Muslim, Hadith No. 1280 & 1282; Ahmad, Hadith No. 21814.
    28. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1668; Ahmed, Hadith No. 6151.
    29. Malik, Hadith No. 175.
    30. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 139; Muslim, Hadith No. 1280; Ahmad, Hadith No. 21814.
    31. Muslim, Hadith No. 1288; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 657.
    32. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 139;
    33. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1675 & 1683.
    34. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1681; Muslim, Hadith No. 1290.
    35. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1677, 1678 & 1856; Muslim, Hadith No. 1293 & 1294; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 892.
    36. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1679; Muslim, Hadith No. 1291.
    37. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1682; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3038.
    38. Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3013.
    39. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1950; al-Nasa’i Hadith No. 3041; al-Tirmidhi Hadith No. 891; Ahmad, Hadith No. 16208.
    40. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1684; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 896; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3022.
    42. Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2643.
    43. Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; al-Bayhaqi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 126.
    44. Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 30523057 & 3058; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3029; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1794, 1821, 1851 & 3248; Ibn Khuzaymah, Hadith No. 2873.
    45. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1544 & 1683; Muslim, Hadith No. 1281 & 1298; Ibn Khuzaymah, Hadith No. 2887.
    46. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 18341966.
    47. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 903; Ahmad, Hadith No. 15410.
    48. Muslim, Hadith No. 1297; Ahmad, Hadith No. 16087, 16088.
    49. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 121, 1741, 4403, 4405, 4406, 5550 & 6869; Muslim, Hadith No. 65, 1679 & 1838; Ahmad, Hadith No. 2036, 16649, 19754, 20695, 23234.
    50. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 616; Ahmad, Hadith No. 22161 & 22258; Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 4563.
    51. Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Hadith No. 291; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2015 & 3855; Ahmad, Hadith No. 18454.
    52. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1951; al-Bayhaqi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 138; Ahmad, Hadith No. 16588 & 23177.
    53. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2019; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 881; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3006 & 3007.
    54. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1937; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3048; Malik, Hadith No. 886.
    55. Nur al-Din Ali al-Qari, Mirqat al-Mafatih.
    56. Muslim, Hadith No. 1218; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 30743076; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1905; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 815.
    57, 103. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah.
    58. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1765; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3158; Ahmad, Hadith No. 19075; al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 221.
    59. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1717 & 2299; Muslim, Hadith No. 1317
    60. Ahmad, Hadith No. 894, 1002,1325, 1374 & 2359.
    61. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1709, & 1720; Muslim, Hadith No. 1319; Ahmad, Hadith No. 26109.
    62. Muslim, Hadith No. 1213.
    63. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 171; Muslim, Hadith No. 1305; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 912; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1981.
    64. Muslim, Hadith No. 2325.
    65. Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah.
    66. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1727, 1728 & 1729; Muslim, Hadith No. 1301 & 1302; Ahmad, Hadith No. 17598.
    67. Al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah.
    68. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1754; Muslim, Hadith No. 1189.
    69. Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3041; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3084.
    70. Muslim, Hadith No. 1273.
    71. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 16071612 & 1613.
    72. Muslim, Hadith No. 1275.
    73. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2001.
    74, 76. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1635.
    75. Muslim, Hadith No. 1316.
    78. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 5617; Muslim, Hadith No. 2027; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 1882; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2964 &2965; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3422.
    79. Al-Azraqi, Akhbar Makka.
    80. Muslim, Hadith No. 1308; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1998.
    82. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 83, 1721, 1722, 1736 & 1738; Muslim, Hadith No. 1306 & 1307; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1857.
    83. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 2975; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3044; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1949; Malik, Hadith No. 960.
    84. Muslim, Hadith No. 1142; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 1719; Ahmad, Hadith No. 567, 992, 1456, 4970; al-Nasa’i, Al-Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith No. 2892, 2903.
    85. Al-Fakihi, Akhbar Makkah, No. 2313, 2593, 2601 & 2603; al-Tabarani, Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, Hadith No. 12283; al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 2, p. 598.
    86. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 76, 493, 1857; Muslim, Hadith No. 504; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1891.
    87. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 575 & 614; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 219, al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 858.
    88. Ahmad, Hadith No. 17475 & 17476.
    89. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1751, 1752 & 1753; Muslim, Hadith No. 1296; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1973; Ahmad, Hadith No. 5944, 6669 & 24592.
    90. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1751 &1752.
    92. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 900.
    93. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1634 & 1745; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1959; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3065.
    94. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1975; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 955; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3037; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 3069.
    95. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1952.
    96. Musnad al-Bazzar, Hadith No. 6135; al-Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith No. 9672.
    97. Muslim, Hadith No. 3024.
    98. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1756; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2013.
    99. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1653 & 1763; Muslim, Hadith No. 1309; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2997; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1912.
    100. Muslim, Hadith No. 1313; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2009.
    101. Muslim, Hadith No. 1310; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 3069; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 921.
    102. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 15891590,3058, 3882 & 7479; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2942.
    104. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 116.
    105. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1556, 1561, 1638, 1785, 1787 & 1788; Muslim, Hadith No. 1211 & 1213; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1710, 14942, 24159.
    106. Ahmad, Hadith No. 1710, 14942, 24159.
    107. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 4641619 & 1633; Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2925, 29262927; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2961.
    108. Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2962; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1899.
    109. Ahmad, Hadith No. 15124; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1898.
    110. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1755.
    111. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 328, 15611757, 176217714401, 53296157; Muslim Hadith No. 1211; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 943; Malik, Hadith No. 932 & 933; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 2003.
    112. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 963.
    113. Al-Fakihi, Akhbar Makkah.

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