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  • Tawaf

    Tawaf (Arabic: طواف) is one of the principal rites of the pilgrimage and refers to circumambulating or walking in circles around the Kaaba in an anti-clockwise motion. One complete circuit of the Kaaba is known as a Shawt (pl. Ashwat) and seven complete Ashwat constitute one Tawaf.

    Linguistically, the word is derived from the Arabic verb “Taafa” which indicates walking around or encircling something.

    Significance of Tawaf

    The Universe in Motion

    Allah says in the Quran:

    وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ

    And He is the One Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating.
    [Surah al-Ambiya, 21:33]

    Pilgrims performing Tawaf
    Pilgrims performing Tawaf

    This verse attests to the scientific fact that the sun and the moon are in orbit; we know that the moon revolves around the earth each month and the earth revolves around the sun each year. However, this circular motion is not just confined to the planetary system but includes the entire universe, from the smallest of atoms to the largest of galaxies.

    Modern science shows that electrons within an atom orbit its core, known as the nucleus, in an anti-clockwise motion. Some of these atoms are so small, they aren’t visible to microscopes. Similarly, our solar system orbits the galaxy and these galaxies have their own orbit around a central axis. Since everything is made up of atoms which are in constant orbital movement, we come to the realisation that revolving around a central point, or Tawaf, is a cosmic law. These systems are all obedient to the will of Allah who has created them and manages them.

    In the same manner, when Tawaf is performed, Muslims are participating in this cosmic ritual, just as the atoms and galaxies do in their subservience to the will of Allah.

    The Kaaba represents the spiritual centre of the world, the spiritual axis around which the believer’s compass rotates, and turns to on a daily basis. Allah refers to the Kaaba as the Sacred House in the following verse, indicating its status as a symbol of the human encounter with the divine:

    جَعَلَ اللَّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلَائِدَ ذَٰلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

    Allah has made the Kaaba, the Sacred House, standing for the people and [has sanctified] the sacred months and the sacrificial animals and the garlands [by which they are identified]. That is so you may know that Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth and that Allah is Knowing of all things.
    [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:97]

    The circumambulation of the Kaaba is a continuous act of worship, 24 hours a day throughout the year. It does not cease, except for a few minutes during the five daily prescribed prayers. This act of Tawaf affirms the worship of one God, since just as every orbit has one centre, there is only one God worthy of worship.

    Al-Bayt al-Ma’mur

    Another interpretation is that when pilgrims perform Tawaf around the Kaaba, they are doing so in tandem with the angels that circumambulate al-Bayt al-Ma’mur (the Frequented House) in the celestial realm. Allah says in the Quran:

    وَالطُّورِ- وَكِتَـبٍ مُّسْطُورٍ- فِى رَقّ مَّنْشُورٍ- وَالْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ

    By the mount. And [by] a Book inscribed. In parchment spread open. And [by] the frequented House.
    [Surah at-Tur, 52:1-4]

    In the Tafsir of Ibn Kathir رحمة الله عليه, the following is written regarding al-Bayt al-Ma’mur:

    In the Two Sahihs it is confirmed that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said in the Hadith about al-Isra, after ascending to the seventh heaven: “Then, I was taken to al-Bayt al-Ma’mur. It is visited every day by seventy thousand angels who will not come back to visit it again.”

    The angels worship Allah in Al-Bayt Al-Ma’mur and perform Tawaf around it just as the people of the earth perform Tawaf around the Kaaba. Al-Bayt al-Ma’mur is the Kaaba of those who reside in the seventh heaven. During the Isra journey, the Prophet ﷺ saw Ibrahim عليه السلام, who was reclining with his back on al-Bayt al-Ma’mur. It was Ibrahim عليه السلام who built the Kaaba on earth, and surely, the reward is compatible with the action. Al-Bayt al-Ma’mur is parallel to the Kaaba; every heaven has its own house of worship, which is also the direction of prayer for its residents. The house that is located in the lower heaven, is called Bayt al-Izzah. And Allah knows best.

    Thus, cosmologically, the Kaaba is regarded as a reflection of al-Bayt al-Ma’mur in the seventh heaven and the Tawaf of the pilgrims reflects the Tawaf of the angels.

    History of Tawaf

    Imam an-Nawawi رحمة الله عليه said:

    During the Days of Ignorance, the Mushrikin, both the men and the women, would perform Tawaf of the Kaaba while naked. They would throw off the clothes that they were wearing and would not pick it up. Those clothes would lay there, being trampled by the feet of people, until they were torn. This was known as “al-Liqa”.

    Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas رحمة الله عليه , a Hanafi scholar, mentioned the reason they would do this was because they felt their clothes had become “soiled” by the sins they had committed, and so they wished to separate themselves from those clothes and those sins.

    With the advent of Islam, Allah commanded the covering of the Awrah and said:

    يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ

    O children of Adam, take your adornment at every masjid, and eat and drink, but be not excessive. Indeed, He likes not those who commit excess.
    [Surah al-A’raf, 7:31]

    Ibn Kathir رحمة الله عليه writes about this verse in his Tafseer:

    Ibn Abbas said, “The idolaters used to go around the House while naked, both men and women, men in the day and women by night. The woman would say, “Today, a part or all of it will be unveiled, but whatever is exposed of it, I do not allow.” Allah said in reply, (Take your adornment to every Masjid,) Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas commented on (Take your adornment to every Masjid):

    There were people who used to perform Tawaf around the House while naked, and Allah ordered them to take adornment, meaning, wear clean, proper clothes that cover the private parts. People were commanded to wear their best clothes when performing every prayer.

    Rasulluah ﷺ prevented the practice in the year before his farewell Hajj:

    أَنَّ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ بَعَثَهُ فِي الْحَجَّةِ الَّتِي أَمَّرَهُ عَلَيْهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ قَبْلَ حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ فِي رَهْطٍ يُؤَذِّنُ فِي النَّاسِ ‏ “‏ أَلاَ لاَ يَحُجُّ بَعْدَ الْعَامِ مُشْرِكٌ، وَلاَ يَطُوفُ بِالْبَيْتِ عُرْيَانٌ ‏”‏‏.‏

    Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه narrated: In the year prior to the last Hajj of the Prophet ﷺ when Allah’s Messenger ﷺ made Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه the leader of the pilgrims, the latter (Abu Bakr) sent me in the company of a group of people to make a public announcement: ‘No pagan is allowed to perform Hajj after this year, and no naked person is allowed to perform Tawaf of the Kaaba’.
    [Narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari]

    Types of Tawaf

    There are five kinds of Tawaf:

    Tawaf al-Qudum (the Tawaf of Arrival)

    This is the initial Tawaf carried out upon entering Masjid al-Haram in Makkah by those performing Hajj al-Qiran or Hajj al-Ifrad. It is identical to Tawaf al-Umrah with the exception of the intention. During Tawaf al-Qudum, Ihram is worn and Idtiba and Raml are observed.

    Tawaf al-Ziyarah (also known as Tawaf al-Ifadhah)

    This is carried out on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah after leaving the state of Ihram and changing into regular clothing, before returning to Mina to perform Rami al-Jamarat. Marital relations are prohibited until this Tawaf is completed.

    Tawaf al-Wida (the Farewell Tawaf, also known as Tawaf al-Sadr)

    This is performed by the pilgrim just before leaving Makkah after completing the Hajj. It is the final rite that is performed in Makkah prior to moving on to the next destination.

    Tawaf al-Nafl

    This is a voluntary Tawaf that may be performed anytime and as often as desired.

    Tawaf al-Umrah

    This is the Tawaf that is carried out by those performing Umrah outside of the Hajj season and those who have the intention of performing Hajj al-Tamattu. It is identical to Tawaf al-Qudum with the exception of the intention that is made. During Tawaf al-Umrah, Ihram is worn and Idtiba and Raml are observed.

    Idtiba and Raml

    Idtiba and Raml is performed during certain types of Tawaf
    Idtiba and Raml is performed during certain Tawafs

    If you are performing Tawaf al-Umrah outside of the Hajj season or as part of Hajj al-Tamattu, or Tawaf al-Qudum as part of Hajj al-Qiran or Hajj al-Ifrad, it is Sunnah to perform Idtiba and Raml during Tawaf. This only applies to male pilgrims.

    Idtiba refers to uncovering your right shoulder during Tawaf. To do this, you pass the top sheet of your Ihram (Rida) under your right armpit, allowing the Ihram to hang from your left shoulder. Your right shoulder will be uncovered throughout the duration of the Tawaf.

    Raml refers to the practice of walking quickly (not running or jogging), lifting your legs forcefully and sticking out your chest while moving your shoulders, so as to imitate a warrior. It is a Sunnah to perform this for the first three rounds, thereafter returning to normal walking pace for the final four rounds.

    Performing Raml may be difficult to perform because of crowding. If this is the case, walk as quickly as you can while moving in the manner as described above, or stop and look for gaps in order to perform Raml properly.

    Method of Tawaf

    For the Tawaf to be considered valid, the following two conditions must be fulfilled:

    Pilgrims performing Tawaf al-Ziyarah
    Pilgrims performing Tawaf al-Ziyarah
    1. To be in a state of Wudhu (ablution).
    2. To have made an intention (verbally or not).

    The following is also necessary to perform Tawaf:

    1. To use your feet, for those who are able.
    2. To move in an anti-clockwise motion.
    3. To avoid the Hatim (the semi-circle area outside the Kaaba).
    4. For women, to be free from menstruation.
    5. For women, to cover up as you would during Salah.

    The essentials of Tawaf are as follows:

    Preparation

    If your Tawaf requires it, uncover your right shoulder (Idtiba). Also, ensure you’re in a state of Wudhu.

    Starting Point

    Tawaf starts at al-Hajar al-Aswad
    Tawaf starts at al-Hajar al-Aswad

    Proceed towards the corner of the Kaaba where al-Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone) is situated. This corner is the one that faces a single minaret (the other three corners face two minarets). There is a green light on the wall of the Masjid opposite the Kaaba which indicates where the Tawaf starts from. This is the starting point of each Shawt (circuit). Stand just before this starting point facing the Kaaba ensuring al-Hajar al-Aswad is on your right side.

    Intention

    As with any other act of worship, make the Niyyah (intention) to perform Tawaf solely for the sake of Allah alone. You can also ask for the acceptance and ease for your Tawaf. The following intention could be made:

    O Allah, I intend to perform the Tawaf of Umrah (or another type) of the Kaaba for your sake and your sake alone. Please accept it from me and make it easy for me.

    The intention doesn’t need to be verbal.

    Istiqbal

    After you have made your intention at the starting point, face al-Hajar al-Aswad directly. This is known as Istiqbal of al-Hajar al-Aswad.

    Takbir

    After Istiqbal, raise your hands up to your earlobes (as you would do when starting Salah) and say Takbir (اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ). Thereafter, drop both of your hands.

    Istilam

    It can be very difficult to get to al-Hajar al-Aswad
    It can be very difficult to get to al-Hajar al-Aswad

    At al-Hajar al-Aswad, perform Istilam (kissing or gesturing towards al-Hajar al-Aswad):

    • Kiss the Black Stone if it is possible to do so.
    • If not, touch the Black Stone with your hands and kiss your hands.
    • If you cannot do this, do Istilam from afar. To do this:
      • Face al-Hajar al-Aswad and raise your hands up to your earlobes (as you would do when starting Salah).
      • Ensure your palms are also facing it, as though your face and hands are on al-Hajar al-Aswad.
      • Say:

     بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ  
    Bismillahi Wallahu Akbar.

    • Kiss your palms without making a kissing noise.

    If you manage to get close enough to al-Hajar al-Aswad, the method of kissing it is as follows:

    • Place your palms on al-Hajar al-Aswad and put your face between your two hands.
    • Say:

     بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ  
    Bismillahi Wallahu Akbar.

    • Kiss al-Hajar al-Aswad three times without making a kissing noise.
    • Avoid placing your forehead on al-Hajar al-Aswad as it wasn’t a practice of Rasulullah ﷺ.
    • If possible, avoid touching the silver surrounding al-Hajar al-Aswad.

    Notes:

    • If you’re in a state of Ihram, make sure you don’t touch al-Hajar al-Aswad, al-Rukn al-Yamani or the Multazam as fragrances are applied to them, and thus would incur a penalty if touched.
    • Make sure you don’t move back a few steps after having performed Istilam; Tawaf must be continued from the point at which you kissed al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    • Don’t cause hardship for other pilgrims by trying to force your way to al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    • If there is a queue to kiss al-Hajar al-Aswad and you want to wait, queue before the start of the first circuit or after completing the final circuit, thereby ensuring you complete the Tawaf in a continuous manner.

    Start the Tawaf

    Turn on your right side, ensuring the Kaaba is on your left side and begin the first circuit (Shawt) of your Tawaf. Proceed in an anti-clockwise direction, ensuring you walk around the Hatim.  If you do walk through it, the circuit won’t count and it will have to be repeated.

    Dhikr & Dua

    During your Tawaf, you may recite prayers and supplications individually. There are no specific prayers that must be recited during the Tawaf, nor are there any specific supplications. Therefore, you may supplicate in any language and in any manner that you prefer. There are however recommended supplications you can make, which you can memorise and learn the meanings of. Avoid talking about unnecessary and worldly things during your Tawaf.

    Al-Rukn al-Yamani
    Al-Rukn al-Yamani

    Al-Rukn al-Yamani

    Upon reaching al-Rukn al-Yamani (the Yemeni Corner), the corner just before al-Hajar al-Aswad, touch it with both hands or your right hand if you are near enough to do so. If you manage to touch it, recite Takbir (اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ) as you touch it. If it’s too crowded, proceed without pronouncing Takbir or gesturing towards it. It is a Sunnah to recite the following Dua between al-Rukn al-Yamani and al-Hajar al-Aswad:

    رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

    Rabbana Aatina Fid-Dunya Hasanah wa fil-Akhirati Hasanah wa Qina ‘Adhab-an-Naar.

    Our Lord, give us in this world (that which is) good and in the Hereafter (that which is) good and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.
    [Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:201]

    During Tawaf

    The Tawaf should be completed in a continuous manner with no interruptions between circuits. However, if a congregational prayer is due to start, you must join the congregation and resume your Tawaf from the position that you stopped. The circuit need not be repeated. These rules also apply if you need to repeat your Wudhu.

    End of Shawt (Circuit)

    Returning to al-Hajar al-Aswad marks the completion of one Shawt (circuit). Begin the second circuit by kissing al-Hajar al-Aswad or turning towards it and performing Istilam as described earlier while reciting Takbir. Kiss your palms after you have recited Takbir.

    Complete the Tawaf

    Proceed in the same manner until have you completed seven circuits. You will have performed Istilam a total of eight times upon completion. Performing Istilam at the start of Tawaf and at the end is a highly emphasised Sunnah and performing Istilam on the other six occasions is desirable.

    If you are in a state Idtiba i.e. you have your right shoulder uncovered, cover your shoulder with your Ihram.

    Maqam Ibrahim
    Maqam Ibrahim

    Salah

    After completing the Tawaf, Salah with two Rakats is to be offered, preferably in a position where Maqam Ibrahim is between you and the Kaaba. However, if that is not possible, it can be performed anywhere in the Haram.

    While moving to the place where you intend to perform the two Rakats, recite the following:

    وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى

    Wattakhidhu Mim Maqami Ibrahima Musalla.

    And take the Maqam Ibrahim as a place of Salah.
    [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:125]

    Notes:

    • This Salah can be performed at any time, apart from Makruh (disliked) times.
    • It is Sunnah to recite Surah al-Kafirun (109) in the first Rakat and Surah al-Ikhlas (112) in the second, after Surah al-Fatiha.
    • Make sure you also make plenty of supplication after the Salah as this is one of the stations where Dua is accepted.
    • If you have started a second Tawaf without praying the Salah for the first Tawaf, perhaps due to it being a Makruh time or forgetfulness, you must perform the Salah for both Tawafs after the second Tawaf. Two Rakats must be performed separately, one after the other.
    • If you’ve forgotten to perform the Salah for the first Tawaf and have already begun a second Tawaf, you may stop and perform the Salah for the first Tawaf, as long as you’re still in your first circuit. If one or more circuits have been completed, complete the second Tawaf and perform the Salah for each Tawaf as in the previous point.
    • If you’ve forgotten to perform the Salah altogether and have returned home, the Salah may be performed at home. No penalty will be due.
    Zamzam is available throughout the Haram
    Zamzam is available throughout the Haram

    Zamzam

    After you have completed your Salah and made Dua, drink Zamzam water which is available within the Haram.

    The entrance to the old well of Zamzam has been covered to allow for more room to do Tawaf. Therefore, Zamzam water can now only be taken from the various water fountains and dispensers around the Haram.

    It is Mustahabb (recommended) to drink Zamzam while standing, facing the Kaaba. After drinking the water, recite the following Dua:

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا وَ رِزْقًا وَاسِعًا وَ شِفَاءً مِنْ كُلِّ دَاءٍ

    Allahumma Inni As’aluka ‘Ilman Nafi’aa wa Rizqan Wasi’aa wa Shifa’am min Kulli Daa’.

    O Allah, I ask You for knowledge that is beneficial, provision that is abundant and cure from every illness.

    You may also make any other supplication of your choosing as it’s another station where Duas are readily accepted.

    Pilgrims clinging on to the walls of the Kaaba
    Pilgrims clinging on to the walls of the Kaaba

    Multazam

    After you have finished drinking your Zamzam water, you may proceed to the Multazam which is the area between Hajar al-Aswad and the door of the Kaaba.

    The Multazam is almost impossible to get to during Hajj season due to the large crowds that gather. However, it is accessible during other parts of the year.

    If it possible to reach the Multazam, raise your hands above your head, cling to the wall and press your chest and cheeks against it. It is a Sunnah of Rasulullah ﷺ and yet another station where supplications are accepted, so you should lengthen your Dua.

    If you can’t reach the Multazam due to the crowds, you may face towards it and supplicate from a distance.

    Where to do Tawaf

    Ground Level

    Tawaf on the ground level becomes extremely crowded at peak times
    Tawaf on the ground level becomes extremely crowded at peak times

    The ground level is the quickest but is also the most crowded, especially during peak times. Be prepared to be pushed, squashed and possibly have wheelchairs knock into the back of your legs.

    If you’re performing Tawaf on the ground level, it’s advisable to begin the first circuit as far out as possible, then slowly move towards the Kaaba, completing circuits 2-6 in close proximity to the Kaaba, before slowly moving away from the inner circle on the final circuit.

    If you start Tawaf on the ground floor, but you’re struggling to cope with the crowds, it is acceptable to continue and complete your Tawaf on another floor. If you move to another floor midway through a circuit, you will need to redo that circuit on the new floor, so it’s best to try to complete the circuit prior to moving.

    Middle Level

    The middle level is also crowded and has pillars that you need to negotiate.

    Roof Level

    The roof level is less crowded and is a good option for those who want to avoid being squashed by others. However, the Tawaf will take considerably longer to finish as there is a larger space to cover.

    Tawaf Tips & Advice

    • Talbiyah should not be read during Tawaf.
    • Walking in front of someone performing Salah during Tawaf is permissible.
    • If a congregational prayer is due to start, you must join the congregation and resume your Tawaf from the position that you stopped, or you may repeat the whole Tawaf again.
    • If your Wudhu breaks during Tawaf, you may repeat your Wudhu and resume your Tawaf from the position that you stopped, or you may repeat the whole Tawaf again.
    • If you feel tired during Tawaf, take a rest and drink some water. You may then resume your Tawaf from the position that you stopped.
    • If you are unsure about whether you still have Wudhu, a new Wudhu won’t be required and the Tawaf will be deemed as valid.
    • If you lose count of the number of circuits you have performed, use your best judgement to ascertain the remaining number of circuits. If you are informed about the remaining number of circuits from someone else, take their word for it.
    • Be fully aware of what’s going on around you, especially if it’s crowded. You may well collide with people or wheelchairs.
    • Become acquainted with the jurisprudence of Tawaf so you know what’s permissible, impermissible or disliked.

    Women

    • Performing Tawaf with your husband or your Mahram is not a requirement, although it is advisable to be accompanied by someone.
    • If Salah starts, women are to pray in designated areas unless they can’t reach the area due to crowds. Make every effort to move into one of these designated areas as Salah is due to begin.
    • The Tawaf area can become extremely crowded so it is advisable to perform Tawaf on another floor where there is less of a crowd.
    • If you’re performing Tawaf on the ground level, it’s a good idea to perform Tawaf away from the inner circle of people, who are closest to the Kaaba and where it is most crowded.
    • If menstruation starts during Tawaf, stop doing Tawaf and leave the Masjid. You may repeat the Tawaf after the menstruation has ended.

    Recommended Supplications

    During Tawaf, you may recite the following Dua:

    سُبْحَان الِلّه وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ وَلآ اِلهَ اِلّا اللّهُ، وَاللّهُ اَكْبَرُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّة اِلَّا بِاللّهِ الْعَلِىّ الْعَظِيْم َ  

    Sub-hanallah wal-Hamdulillah wa La Ilaha Illallah Wallahu Akbar, wa La Hawla wa La Quwwata Illa Billahil ‘Aliyyil ‘Azhim.

    Glory be to Allah. All Praise is due to Allah (Alone). There is no Lord besides Allah. Allah is the Greatest. There is no power or might except with Allah, the Most High and the Most Great.

    When passing the Mizab al-Rahmah, you may recite the following Dua:

    اللَّهُمَّ قَنِّعْنِيْ بِمَا رَزَقْتَنِيْ وَبَارِكْ لِيْ فِيْهِ، وَاخْلُفْ عَلَ كُلِّ غَائِبَةٍ لِّيْ بِخَيْرٍ

    Allahumma Qanni’ni bima Razaqtani wa Barik lee Feehi wakhluf ‘ala Kulli Gha’ibatin lee bi-Khayr.

    O Allah! Make me content with that which You have granted me, and grant me blessing in it, and be my deputy in the welfare of all those who are away from me.

    From al-Rukn al-Yamani to al-Hajar al-Aswad, you may recite the following Dua:

    للَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَفْوَ وَالْعَافِيَةَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ

    Allahumma Inni As’alukal ‘Afwa wal-’Afiya fid-Dunya wal-Akhirah.

    O Allah, I ask You for forgiveness and safety in the worldly life and Hereafter.

    رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِيْ الدُنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِيْ الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَار

    Rabbana Aatina Fid-Dunya Hasanah wa fil-Akhirati Hasanah wa Qina ‘Adhab-an-Naar.

    O our Lord, grant us the good of this world, the good of the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the fire.

    اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الرَّاحَةَ عِنْدَ الْمَوْتِ وَالْعَفْوَ عِنْدَ الْحِسَابِ   

    Allahumma Inni As’alaukar Rahah ‘Indal Mawti wal-’Afwa ‘Indal Hisab.

    O Allah! I ask You for comfort at the time of death and forgiveness at the time of reckoning.

    The Jurisprudence of Tawaf

    Shuroot (Prerequisites)
    To make an intention for Tawaf.
    To perform Tawaf in its correct time e.g. Tawaf al-Ziyarah during Hajj.
    Wajibaat (Necessary Actions)
    To be in a state of Wudhu (ablution) and free of anything that necessitates Ghusl (shower), for example, menstruation.
    To keep the Awrah covered i.e. the portion of the body which must be concealed. For men, it is from the navel to below the knees and for women, it is the whole body up to the wrists and ankles.
    To perform Tawaf by foot, for those who are able to.
    To start the Tawaf from al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    To perform Tawaf in an anti-clockwise motion, beginning from the right side.
    To perform Tawaf around the Kaaba, moving around the Hatim.
    To complete seven circuits of Tawaf.
    To perform two Rakats Salah after Tawaf.
    Sunnan (Virtuous Actions)
    To face al-Hajar al-Aswad at the start of the Tawaf.
    To perform Istilam of al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    To be in a state of Idtiba if you’re performing Tawaf in a state of Ihram.
    To perform Raml for the first three circuits of Tawaf if you’re in a state of Ihram.
    To perform each circuit of Tawaf continuously.
    Makroohat (Disliked Actions)
    To turn your back towards the Kaaba.
    To engage in frivolous or worldly talk during Tawaf.
    To buy or sell anything during Tawaf.
    To eat food during Tawaf.
    To perform Tawaf while being hungry or angry.
    To perform Tawaf while needing to answer the call of nature.
    To perform Tawaf with shoes on without an excuse.
    To perform Tawaf in dirty clothes.
    To do Dhikr or Dua in a loud voice, such that it would disturb others.
    To omit Idtiba or Raml during a Tawaf in which it is a Sunnah.
    To omit Istilam of al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    To perform Istilam of anything other than al-Hajar al-Aswad or al-Rukn al-Yamani.
    To raise hands without facing al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    To engage in other activities between circuits, thereby lengthening the duration of the Tawaf.
    To perform Tawaf during the Jumuah Khutbah (Friday sermon).
    To start Tawaf while the congregational prayer is due to begin.
    To omit Takbir after you have made your intention for Tawaf.
    To raise your hands during Tawaf as you would when making Dua or to fold your hands as you would during Salah.
    Muharramat (Forbidden Actions)
    To perform Tawaf in a state of ritual impurity.
    To perform Tawaf in the opposite direction i.e. clockwise.
    To perform Tawaf naked or revealing a portion of your body, to the extent that it would invalidate your Salah.
    To perform Tawaf riding, crawling or on someone’s shoulders without a valid excuse.
    To pass through the Hatim during Tawaf.
    To begin Tawaf in a place other than al-Hajar al-Aswad.
    To omit any of the Wajib elements of Tawaf.

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