Afaqi (Arabic: افاقي) refers to a pilgrim who resides outside the Miqat boundaries. An Afaqi will need to enter the state of Ihram at their respective Miqat.
Al-Haramain (Arabic: الحرمين) means “the two sacred sanctuaries” and refers to Masjid al-Haram in Makkah and Masjid al-Nabawi in Madinah.
Al-Hil (Arabic: الحل) is the area between the boundaries of the Mawaqit and the boundary of the Haram. Towns and cities such as Jeddah, Khulais, al-Janun and Taneem are all situated within this area. Pilgrims residing in or travelling through al-Hil must enter into a state of Ihram before crossing the boundary of the Haram.
Awrah (Arabic: عورة) refers to the intimate parts of the body, for both men and women, which must be covered with clothing. Exposing the Awrah is unlawful and is regarded as a sin, except in situations of necessity.
Badanah (Arabic: بدنة) refers to offering a large sacrificial animal such as a camel or cow (the size of which normally constitutes seven parts) as compensation (Fidyah) for violating a Hajj-related law.
Damm (Arabic: دم) refers to the sacrifice of a small animal such as a sheep or a goat (or the cost of one-seventh of a large animal if sharing) as compensation (Fidyah) for missing an action or violating a Hajj-related law.
Dhikr (Arabic: ذكر; pl. Adhkar أذكار) is the remembrance of Allah. Dhikr can take many forms including reciting Quran, performing Salah, making Dua and reciting litanies mentioned by the Prophet ﷺ.
Dhul Hijjah (Arabic: ذو الحجة; meaning “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”) is the twelfth and final month of the Islamic calendar, during which Hajj takes place.
Fardh (Arabic: فريضة), in Islamic jurisprudence, refers to an obligatory act. Failure to perform it constitutes a sin. Fardh is generally synonymous with “Wajib“, although the Hanafi school of thought make a distinction between the two with the view that something that is Fardh is proven by means of definitive evidence, whereas something that is Wajib is proven on the basis of ambiguous evidence where there is possibly more than one meaning.
Fidyah (Arabic: فدية; meaning “expiation”) is a means of compensation for a missed action or a violation of a Hajj-related law. It shouldn’t be regarded as a punishment, but a means of rectifying and renewing your commitment to the pilgrimage and the Sunnah of Rasulullah ﷺ.
Fiqh (Arabic: فقه ) is Islamic jurisprudence, which is the practice of deriving specific rulings (such as how to pray) from Shariah. While Shariah represents divine law as revealed in the Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh is the human understanding of Shariah, derived from the interpretation (Ijtihad) of these sources by Islamic scholars.
Ghusl (Arabic: غسل) refers to the ritual cleansing of the entire body. It must be performed after sexual activity, menstruation and childbirth. It is also performed on the body of a dead person in preparation for burial. Performing Ghusl is Mustahabb on certain occasions such as before Jummah and Eid prayers and before entering into the state of Ihram.
Hajj al-Ifrad (Arabic: حج الإفراد) involves making one Niyyah for the sole purpose of performing Hajj without Umrah. This method of performing Hajj is ideally for those living in Makkah and within the Miqat boundaries. A pilgrim who performs Hajj al-Ifrad is called a Mufrid.
Hajj al-Qiran (Arabic: حج القران) involves combining Umrah and Hajj, with only one Niyyah and Ihram for both. A pilgrim who performs Hajj al-Qiran is called a Qarin. Those who live in Makkah cannot perform this type of Hajj.
Hajj al-Tamattu (Arabic: حج التمتع) involves performing Umrah during the months of Hajj (the months being Shawwaal, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijjah), usually a few days before the Hajj is due to start, before carrying out the rites of Hajj when the pilgrimage begins. The word “Tamattu” signifies enjoyment, due to the fact that a pilgrim has the added advantage of performing Hajj and Umrah in the same journey without having to return home, in addition to being able to enjoy the benefits of a regular life after leaving the state of Ihram following Umrah, unconstrained by prohibitions, until he enters into a state of Ihram once again for Hajj.
The Hanafi (Arabic: حنفي) Madhhab is one of the four Sunni schools of Islamic law. It was founded by Imam Abu Hanifa رحمة الله عليه who is also known as “The Great Imam” (al-Imam al-A’zam; Arabic: ألإمام الأعظم). His two students, Imam Abu Yusuf رحمة الله عليه and Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani رحمة الله عليه also played a prominent part in the formation of the school. The Hanafi Madhhab has the highest number of observers among Sunni Muslims in the Islamic world.
The Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلي) Madhhab is one of the four Sunni schools of Islamic law. It was named after Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal رحمة الله عليه and established by his students. It is the smallest of the four Sunni schools and is primarily found in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and other Middle Eastern countries.
The Haram (Arabic: حرم) is the sacred boundary of Makkah within which certain acts are considered unlawful which may be lawful elsewhere. It is prohibited to hunt wild animals, damage any plant or tree, graze animals, carry weapons, fight or behave in a manner that will violate the sanctity of Masjid al-Haram. If a violation is carried out within the precinct of the Haram, Damm or Sadaqah is required as expiation.
Haram (Arabic: حَرَام) refers to something that is forbidden by Islamic law. A Haram action that is carried out generally constitutes a sin and requires repentance to be absolved of that sin. Haram actions are typically outlined in the Quran and the Sunnah, although there is sometimes a difference of opinion among scholars regarding what is or isn’t Haram in certain matters. The antonym of Haram is “Halal”.
Ibadah (Arabic: عبادة, pl. عبادات Ibadat) is commonly translated as “worship” and is the observance of devotional practices, based on injunctions in the Quran and elaborated in the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ. Linguistically, Ibadah means “obedience with submission”. Through the performance of Ibadah, a Muslim’s relationship with Allah is nurtured.
Iddah (Arabic: العدة) is the prescribed waiting period a woman must observe after the death of her husband or after a divorce, during which she may not marry again. It is mandatory for every woman who has separated from her husband as a result of divorce or his death.
Idtiba (Arabic: الاضطباع) refers to the practice of uncovering the right shoulder during Tawaf al-Umrah and Tawaf al-Qudum. It is Sunnah to perform Idtiba for the entire duration of the Tawaf i.e. for seven circuits. Neglecting Idtiba will not invalidate the Tawaf.
Ikhtilaf (Arabic: إختلاف) is a scholarly difference of opinion on religious matters. It is important to acknowledge that throughout Islamic history, differences of opinion and disagreements have arisen among Muslim scholars. However, this was rarely a source of contention among early scholars as is often the case today, rather it was seen as a mercy and a wisdom from Allah.
Ittar (Arabic: عطر) is natural perfume oil derived from botanical sources. Pilgrims must be careful not to apply Ittar or other fragrances whilst in the state of Ihram, but are free to do so before entering Ihram.
An Izar (Arabic: ازار) refers to the Ihram garment which wraps around the waist and covers the lower portion of the body. Generally, any type of clothing which is tied around the waist and covers the lower half of the body is referred to as an Izar.
Jama (Arabic: جمع) refers to the practice of joining two prayers within one prayer time.
A Madhhab (Arabic: مذهب; pl. Madahib مذاهب) is a Sunni school of thought in relation to matters of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). Today there are four primary Sunni schools of thought, namely Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali. These were initiated by eminent Muslim scholars in the first few centuries of Islam. Although these four schools are somewhat different to another, they are considered equally valid. Most Sunni Muslims choose a single Madhhab and follow its rulings and regulations in all matters.
A Mahram (Arabic محرم) is a man who must accompany a woman on the journey for Hajj or Umrah. More specifically, the man must be the husband or another relative who cannot legally marry the woman, according to Islamic law.
Makruh (Arabic: مكروه) refers to an action that is disliked or detestable in nature. Although it isn’t in the same category as something that is Haram i.e. sinful, avoiding such an action is encouraged and rewarded.
The Maliki (Arabic: مالكي) Madhhab is one of the four Sunni schools of Islamic law. It was founded by Imam Malik ibn Anas رحمة الله عليه. The Maliki Madhhab is predominant in North and West Africa and some parts of the Middle East. It is one of the largest Sunni schools of thought, comparable to the Shafi’i Madhhab in number of adherents, but smaller than the Hanafi Madhhab.
The Ministry of Hajj is responsible for the management of Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, ensuring they are sufficiently provided for during their stay in Makkah, Madinah and the various locations during the days of Hajj.
A Mufrid (Arabic: مفرد) is a Hajj pilgrim who is performing Hajj al-Ifrad, which involves making one Niyyah for the sole purpose of performing Hajj without Umrah.
A Muhrim (Arabic: محرم) is a pilgrim who is in the state of Ihram. An individual may only become a Muhrim after cleansing the body, wearing the prescribed attire and making the appropriate Niyyah before the designated Miqat. Certain actions, such as cutting the hair or applying perfume, are prohibited for a Muhrim.
A Muqim (Arabic: مقيم) is a resident. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, a person who makes an intention of remaining in a particular place for 15 days or more will be regarded as a Muqim of that place. The opposite of a Muqim is a Musafir.
A Musafir (Arabic: مسافر) is a traveller. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, a person who sets out with the intention of travelling 77 km (48 miles) or more is regarded as a Musafir. The opposite of a Musafir is a Muqim.
Mustahabb (Arabic: مستحب) refers to an action that is recommended, favoured or virtuous in nature. Carrying out such an action is meritorious whilst neglecting it does not constitute a sin. A synonym of Mustahabb is Mandub (Arabic: مندوب) whereas the opposite of Mustahabb is Makruh.
A Mutamatti (Arabic: متمتّـع) is a Hajj pilgrim who is performing Hajj al-Tamattu, where Umrah and Hajj are performed with two separate intentions and two Ihrams. The vast majority of Hajj pilgrims are Mutamattis.
A Mutawwif (Arabic: مطوف), also known as a Muallim (Arabic: معلم) is a guide appointed by the Ministry of Hajj responsible for the needs and well-being of Hajj pilgrims.
Nafl (Arabic: نفل; plural: Nawafil) in Islamic jurisprudence, refers to an action that is optional, supererogatory or voluntary. The performance of a Nafl action is virtuous whilst neglecting it is not blameworthy.
Niyyah (Arabic: نیّة) is translated as “intention” and is an essential prerequisite for the performance of any type of Ibadah.
A Qarin (Arabic: قارن) is a Hajj pilgrim who is performing Hajj al-Qiran, which involves combining Umrah and Hajj, with only one Niyyah and Ihram for both.
Qasr (Arabic: قصر) refers to the practice of shortening the prayer when travelling over long distances. It involves shortening the Fardh components of Dhuhr, Asr and Isha prayers to two Rakats. To be able to perform Qasr Salah, you need to qualify as a Musafir.
The Qibla (Arabic: قبلة) is the direction Muslims should face during Salah – toward the Kaaba in Makkah. It is also the direction toward which the deceased are orientated when they are buried.
Raml (Arabic: رمل) refers to the practice of walking quickly, lifting the legs forcefully and sticking out the chest while moving the shoulders during Tawaf al-Umrah and Tawaf al-Qudum, so as to imitate a warrior. It is a Sunnah to perform Raml for the first three rounds before returning to normal walking pace for the final four rounds. Neglecting Raml will not invalidate the Tawaf.
A Rida (Arabic: رداء) is the Ihram garment which is draped over the shoulder, covering the upper portion of the body. The entire upper part of the body should be covered at all times, except during Tawaf al-Umrah and Tawaf al-Qudum, where the right shoulder is uncovered. Generally, any type of upper garment can be referred to as a Rida.
Rukn (Arabic: ركن; pl. Arkan أركان; meaning “pillar”), in Islamic jurisprudence, refers to an obligatory act, with failure to perform it rendering the act invalid. If a Rukn is neglected, the entire act must be repeated. It cannot be expiated by virtue of offering Fidyah.
Sadaqah (Arabic: صدقة) refers to providing charity to the poor and needy as compensation (Fidyah) for missing an action or violating a Hajj-related law. It is recommended to give Sadaqah in the form of non-perishable staple food such as flour, wheat, barley, dates or raisins.
Sadaqah Jariyah (Arabic: صدقة الجارية) is a form of recurring charity and source of ongoing reward, benefitting us not only in this life but continuing to benefit us in the next.
The Shafi’i (Arabic: شافعي) Madhhab is one of the four Sunni schools of Islamic law. It was founded by Imam al-Shafi’i رحمة الله عليه, a pupil of Imam Malik ibn Anas رحمة الله عليه. It is one of the largest Sunni schools of thought, comparable to the Maliki Madhhab in number of adherents, but smaller than the Hanafi Madhhab.
Shariah (Arabic: شريعة) refers to the divine law of Allah, as derived from the Quran and the Hadith. The science of Fiqh is the scholarly interpretation of this divine law.
Shart (Arabic: شرط; pl. Shuroot شروط; meaning “prerequisite”), in Islamic jurisprudence, refers to a condition or set of conditions that must be in place prior to carrying out an act for it to be considered valid. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, for example, declaring an intention to enter into Ihram for Hajj or Umrah is considered a Shart.
Sunnah (Arabic: سنة; plural: Sunnan سنن) refers to the exemplary words and actions of the Prophet ﷺ, as reported in the Hadith. The Sunnah is one of the four roots of Islamic jurisprudence, the others being the Quran, Ijma (scholarly consensus) and Qiyas (analogical reasoning). Performing a Sunnah action is highly virtuous and meritorious although there is no sin if it is omitted.
The Takbir (Arabic: تَكبِير) is the phrase “Allahu Akbar” (Arabic: الله أكبر) and is commonly translated as “Allah is the greatest.”
Takbir al-Tashreeq (Arabic: تكبير التشريق) is a prayer recited by pilgrims after every Fardh Salah during Hajj.
The Talbiyah (Arabic: تلبية) is a devotional prayer uttered by pilgrims during Hajj or Umrah after making the intention to enter into the state of Ihram. It is recited frequently throughout the pilgrimage.
Tawaf al-Nafl (Arabic: طواف النفل) is a voluntary Tawaf that may be performed anytime and as often as desired.
Tawaf al-Qudum (Arabic: طواف القدوم; meaning: “The Tawaf of Arrival”) is the initial Tawaf carried out upon entering Masjid al-Haram in Makkah by those performing Hajj al-Qiran or Hajj al-Ifrad. It is identical to Tawaf al-Umrah with the exception of the intention. During Tawaf al-Qudum, Ihram is worn and Idtiba and Raml are observed.
Tawaf al-Umrah (Arabic: العمرة طواف) is the Tawaf that is carried out by those performing Umrah outside of the Hajj season and those who have the intention of performing Hajj al-Tamattu. It is identical to Tawaf al-Qudum with the exception of the intention that is made. During Tawaf al-Umrah, Ihram is worn and Idtiba and Raml are observed.
Tawaf al-Wida (Arabic: طواف الوداع; meaning: “The Farewell Tawaf”), is performed by the pilgrim just before leaving Makkah after completing the Hajj. It is the final rite that is performed in Makkah prior to moving on to the next destination.
Tawaf al-Ziyarah (Arabic: طواف الزيارة), also known as Tawaf al-Ifadhah (Arabic: طواف الافاضة), is the Tawaf that is carried out on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah after leaving the state of Ihram and changing into regular clothing, before returning to Mina to perform Rami al-Jamarat. Marital relations are prohibited until this Tawaf is completed.
Udhiyah (Arabic: أضحية), commonly known as Qurbani (Arabic: قربانى) is an animal sacrifice that is normally made on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah. It is obligatory upon every Muslim who is sane, mature, has enough wealth upon which Zakah becomes necessary and is not a Musafir.
Umrah al-Mufradah (Arabic: عمرة المفردة) refers to Umrah that is performed independently to Hajj and can be carried out at any point during the year, except during the days of Hajj.
Umrah al-Tamattu (Arabic: عمرة التمتع) refers to Umrah that is performed in conjunction with Hajj and is normally carried out in the month of Dhul Hijjah, just before the commencement of Hajj. This Hajj is known as Hajj al-Tamattu and is the most common and easiest type of Hajj that pilgrims tend to carry out.
Wajib (Arabic: واجب), in Islamic jurisprudence, refers to an obligatory act, with failure to perform it constituting a sin. Wajib is generally synonymous with “Fardh”, although the Hanafi school of thought make a distinction between the two with the view that something that is Fardh is proven by means of definitive evidence, whereas something that is Wajib is proven on the basis of ambiguous evidence, where there is possibly more than one meaning.
Wudhu (Arabic: الوضوء), commonly translated as “ablution”, refers to the ritual cleansing of the body with pure water in preparation for performance of acts of worship. Failure to perform Wudhu prohibits a person from performing prayer, touching the Quran or carrying out sacred rites during Hajj and Umrah, such as Tawaf.
Wuquf (Arabic: وقوف; meaning “standing”) is the act of being present, even for a moment, at a particular place during Hajj. The Wuquf at Arafat on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah is an integral rite of Hajj and its non-performance invalidates the entire pilgrimage. The Wuquf at Muzdalifah performed after Fajr on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, just before leaving for Mina, is regarded as a Sunnah.
Ziyarah (Arabic: زيارة; meaning “visitation”) is the practice of visiting historical points of interest associated with the Prophet ﷺ and other important figures. Oft-visited places of Ziyarah by pilgrims include Masjid al-Nabawi and Jannat al-Baqi in Madinah.