• Hajj

    Hajj (Arabic: حج), the pilgrimage to Makkah, is one of the five pillars of Islam, the others being the profession of faith, prayer, fasting and charity. It should be undertaken once in a Muslim’s lifetime, providing health and means permit.

    Definition of Hajj

    Thousands of pilgrims gather in Arafat during Hajj
    Thousands of pilgrims gather in Arafat

    Linguistically, the word “Hajj” is derived from the Arabic verb hajja (Arabic: حَجَّ), meaning “to exert effort” or “to set out to a great place.” From a Sharia perspective, Hajj means “to take oneself to a certain place at a particular time to perform devotional acts as required by Islam.” Specifically, the place refers to the Kaaba within Masjid al-Haram as well as sites in and around Makkah, including Arafat, Mina and Muzdalifah. As for the time, Hajj can only be performed during specific months, namely Shawwal, Dhul Qadah and the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah. The devotional acts refer to the many rites of Hajj, including Tawaf, Sa’i, Rami al-Jamarat etc.

    Obligation of Hajj


    Hajj is a categorical and definitive obligation, as stated in the following verse:

    فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَنْ دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا وَلِلّٰهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

    In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.
    [Surah Aal Imran, 3:97]

    As well as highlighting the obligation of Hajj, this verse also declares that sincerity of intention and the ability to undertake the journey are also prerequisites for performing Hajj. The verse also alludes to the fact that rejection of the obligation of Hajj is tantamount to disbelief.

    The majority of scholars hold the view that Hajj was prescribed in the sixth year after Hijrah with the revelation of the following verse:

    وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّٰهِ

    And complete the Hajj and Umrah for Allah.
    [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:196]

    Other scholars are inclined to the view that Hajj was made obligatory in the ninth or the tenth year of Hijrah.


    There are also many Hadiths that allude to the obligation of Hajj. Abu Huraira I narrates:

    Allah’s Messenger ﷺ addressed us and said: ‘O people, Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you, so perform Hajj.'1Muslim, Hadith No. 1337; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2619.

    Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrates:

    A woman from the tribe of Khath’am came in the year (of Hajjat al-Wada of the Prophet ﷺ) and said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger ﷺ! My father has come under Allah’s obligation of performing Hajj, but he is a very old man and cannot sit properly on his mount. Will the obligation be fulfilled if I perform Hajj on his behalf?” The Prophet ﷺ replied in the affirmative.2Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1853; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2653.

    This narration not only emphasises the obligation of Hajj but also stresses that if an individual is unable to perform the Hajj himself, he must appoint someone to perform it on his behalf.

    Virtues of Hajj

    The virtues of Hajj are immense, and the Hadiths regarding this are numerous.

    Hajj Removes Sins

    Abu Huraira I narrates:

    The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘Whoever performs Hajj for Allah’s sake and does not speak obscenely, nor commits acts of impiety, he returns home free of sin like the day his mother gave birth to him.’3Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 15211819 & 1820; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2627; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2889.

    Abdullah ibn Masud I narrates:

    The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Alternate between Hajj and Umrah (regularly), for these two remove poverty and sins just as the blacksmith’s bellows removes all impurities from iron, gold and silver. There is no reward for an accepted Hajj (Hajj Mabrur) except Paradise.'4al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 810; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2630; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2887.

    Amr ibn al-‘As I said:

    When Allah instilled the love of Islam in my heart, I went to the Prophet ﷺ and said: ‘O Prophet of Allah! Stretch out your hand so that I may pledge my allegiance to you.’ The Prophet ﷺ stretched out his hand towards me, but I withdrew my hand. The Prophet ﷺ asked: ‘O Amr! What is the matter with you?’ I said: ‘I would like to stipulate a condition! ‘The Prophet ﷺ asked: ‘What is it?’ I said: ‘That all my past sins be forgiven!’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘O ‘Amr! Do you not know that Islam eradicates all past sins, and migration eradicates all sins, and (similarly) Hajj eradicates all past sins!’5Muslim, Hadith No. 121.

    The Reward of Hajj Mabrur (Accepted Hajj) is Paradise

    Abu Huraira I reports:

    All sins committed in between the performance of one Umrah and another are expiated and erased. And there is no reward for a Hajj Mabrur except paradise.6Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1773; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 933; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2629.

    “Hajj Mabrur” and “Hajj Maqbul” are often used interchangeably and translated as ‘accepted’, but there is a subtle difference between the two.

    • Hajj Maqbul is that pilgrimage in which all the obligations and requirements are completed without any minor or major expiation. It is a fulfilment of the obligation of Hajj.
    • Hajj Mabrur is that pilgrimage which is free of sin and is graced with divine acceptance and pleasure.

    In essence, Hajj Mabrur includes Hajj Maqbul, but Hajj Maqbul does not necessarily include Hajj Mabrur. If a pilgrim avoids the minor and major violations of Hajj but displeases his Lord by engaging in sinful behaviour, Hajj Maqbul may be attained but the chances of obtaining Hajj Mabrur are placed in jeopardy.

    Defining Hajj Mabrur, Hasan al-Basri V said: “Hajj Mabrur is that Hajj, after which an aversion for the material worldly life is created and an inclination to the hereafter is brought about.”

    A Safeguard from Punishment

    Aisha J narrates that the Prophet ﷺ said:

    There is no day wherein Allah saves more of his servants from the fire of hell than the Day of Arafat. He draws near and praises them to the angels, saying: ‘What do my servants want?'7Muslim, Hadith No. 1348.

    One of the Best Deeds

    Abu Huraira I reports:

    The Prophet ﷺ was asked: ‘What is the best deed?’ He replied: ‘To have faith in Allah and His Messenger.’ The enquirer asked: ‘What next?’ The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘To strive in the cause of Allah.’ He was then asked: ‘What is the next best thing?’ He replied: ‘To perform Hajj Mabrur’.8Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1519.

    A Form of Jihad

    Aisha reports that she once said:

    ‘O Prophet of Allah! Jihad (striving or fighting in the cause of Allah) is the best deed. Should we (women) then, not actively participate in it?’ The Prophet ﷺ replied: ‘The best Jihad for you is Hajj Mabrur.'9Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 151915202784; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2624.

    Abu Huraira I narrates:

    Jihad for the elderly, the young, the weak, and women is Hajj and Umrah.10Al-NaSa’i, Hadith No. 2626.

    Pilgrims are Guests of Allah

    Abu Huraira I narrates:

    The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘The guests of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, are three: The warrior, the pilgrim performing Hajj and the pilgrim performing Umrah.'11Al-NaSa’i, Hadith No. 26253121.

    He also narrates:

    The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘Pilgrims are the guests of Allah; should they supplicate, Allah will answer their supplications; should they seek forgiveness, Allah will forgive them.'12Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2892.

    Conditions of Hajj

    Although the duty of Hajj is obligatory once in a lifetime, there are a number of prerequisites that need to be met in order to partake in the pilgrimage:


    The pilgrim must be Muslim and must know that performing Hajj is obligatory.


    The pilgrim must have reached puberty, i.e. he must be baligh. All scholars agree that if a minor performs Hajj, the pilgrimage would have to be repeated during adulthood as children aren’t obligated to perform Hajj.

    It is reported by Abdullah ibn Abbas I that after Hajjat al-Wida, a woman presented a child to the Prophet ﷺ and asked: “Will this boy be rewarded for Hajj?” The Prophet ﷺ answered: “Yes, and you too will be rewarded.”13Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1736; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2648; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2910. The narration indicates that the child will be rewarded for his obedience, while the mother will be rewarded for helping and instructing him to perform Hajj.


    The pilgrim must be mentally sound and in full control of his mental faculties. Those who are mentally ill aren’t obligated to perform Hajj. If an individual with such a condition were to perform the Hajj, presumably in the way expected of someone in control of his mental faculties, the Hajj would still need to be repeated were he to return to a state of mental well-being.


    The pilgrim must possess a conveyance and sufficient funds for the journey to Makkah and back.


    Although not applicable in the modern era, the pilgrim must not be a slave.


    With regard to a person’s ability, there are further conditions that fall into this category:

    Physically Able

    The pilgrim must be physically capable of travelling and performing the rites of Hajj and must be free from any illnesses or diseases that would restrict him from doing so. If an individual is not capable of performing Hajj due to being old, ill or incapacitated, he may pay someone to perform Hajj on his behalf, providing he is financially capable of doing so.

    Financially Able

    The pilgrim must have sufficient expenses to cover travelling, accommodation and all other requirements during the course of the journey. He must also have sufficient expenses to support his dependents during his absence. If the individual doesn’t have sufficient funds to cover the needs of his family, Hajj isn’t incumbent on him. Being debt-free isn’t a prerequisite, although arrangements for debts to be fulfilled should be made prior to going on Hajj.

    Safety En-Route

    The journey to Hajj must be deemed safe enough to ensure that the pilgrim’s life and possessions are secure from any danger.


    The pilgrim must have access to and should be able to afford the appropriate means of transport to travel to Makkah and perform Hajj.


    There are two additional conditions for the obligation to perform Hajj that apply solely to women. These are:

    Necessity of a Mahram

    A woman intending to perform Hajj or Umrah must be accompanied by a Mahram, according to the Hanafi and Maliki schools of thought. If she doesn’t have a Mahram who would be willing to accompany her, Hajj would not be obligatory for her. On the other hand, according to the Shafi’i and Maliki schools of thought, she may perform the pilgrimage with trustworthy women (two or more) or even alone, according to some scholars, on condition that her safety is guaranteed in terms of her life, wealth and honour. However, for a nafl Hajj or Umrah, the escort of reliable women wouldn’t suffice, and she would have to be accompanied by her husband or a Mahram.

    Although not a condition, it is also desirable for a married woman to seek her husband’s permission for the pilgrimage, although he has no right to prevent her from carrying out the obligatory Hajj. He may, however, prevent her from carrying out a nafl Hajj.

    Free From Iddah period

    She should also be free of the post-divorce or mourning waiting period (following her husband’s death). This is known as iddah. Therefore, if the other conditions of the obligation to perform Hajj are met while she is in her waiting period, or her waiting period is at a time when it is possible for her to travel for Hajj, then it is not obligatory for her to perform it.

    Immediacy of Hajj

    Once the conditions for the obligation of Hajj are met, it should be carried out as soon as possible. It is sinful to delay the pilgrimage, according to the majority of opinions, although a delayed Hajj still fulfils the obligation. The Shafi’i school of thought, on the other hand, opines that it is not obligatory to perform it as soon as possible, and an individual would not be sinful for postponing it. This postponement, however, can only be made under the condition that a firm intention is made to perform the pilgrimage in the future without the fear of being unable to carry it out.

    The History of Hajj

    The origins of Hajj extend as far back as the second millennium BCE during the time of the Prophet Ibrahim S. Ibrahim had two sons, Ishaq S and Ismail S, the latter of whom being a forefather of the Arab tribes and an ancestor of the Prophet ﷺ.

    Pilgrims performing Sa'i between Safa and Marwa
    Pilgrims performing Sa’i between Safa and Marwa

    After Ismail was born, Ibrahim was instructed by Allah to leave Ismail and his mother Hajar P in the desert. After Ibrahim had left them both there, their provisions soon ran out, and Hajar, in a desperate search for water, ran seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwa. The rite of Sa’i, which is performed by pilgrims during Hajj and Umrah, is a re-enactment of the actions performed by Hajar during her search for water.

    After returning to her son, she found that the Angel Jibril S had miraculously brought forth a spring of water from the earth, which is now known as Zamzam. The well of Zamzam attracted tribes to settle in the area, and the settlement flourished into what is today known as the city of Makkah.

    On his return to the settlement some years later, Ibrahim S, along with his son Ismail, was instructed by the Angel Jibril to construct a monument in dedication to Allah near the site of the well. This monument, the Kaaba, was to become a place of pilgrimage for the worship of the one true God, free of idolatry and polytheism.

    A depiction of the Kaaba surrounded by idols before the advent of Islam
    A depiction of the Kaaba surrounded by idols before the advent of Islam

    Centuries down the line, the people of Makkah abandoned the worship of one God. They denigrated into idolatry and polytheism during a period known as the Jahiliyyah (the Age of Ignorance). During this time, the Kaaba was surrounded by 360 idols and statues depicting human and animal deities which were openly worshipped. The pre-Islamic Arab tribes would also perform Tawaf around the Kaaba, sometimes even naked.

    In 610 CE, the Prophet ﷺ received his first revelations from Allah, during which he was divinely instructed to re-establish monotheism. Twenty years after the first revelation, in 630 CE, the Prophet ﷺ had amassed enough religious and political authority to gain victory in Makkah, the city where he was born and where he suffered much persecution at the hands of its inhabitants. He destroyed the idols in and around the Kaaba and rededicated it to the worship of one God, as was its intended purpose.

    Jabal al-Rahma is the site where Rasullulah delivered his farewell sermon
    Jabal al-Rahmah is the site where the Prophet ﷺ delivered his farewell sermon

    In 623 CE (10 AH), shortly before his passing, the Prophet ﷺ personally led his one and only Hajj, known as Hajjat al-Wida, accompanied by thousands of companions. He gave his farewell sermon at Jabal Arafat, where he emphasised the equality and unity of the Muslim Ummah, a symbol of the egalitarian nature of the Hajj pilgrimage. The Hajj, as performed by the Prophet ﷺ on that occasion, continues to this day.

    Types of Hajj

    There are three types of Hajj a pilgrim may perform, which vary in their requirements, although they all essentially involve performing the same rites and acts of worship. You may choose from any of the three forms of Hajj.

    Hajj al-Tamattu

    Hajj al-Tamattu involves performing Umrah during the months of Hajj (the months being Shawwaal, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijjah), usually a few days before the Hajj is due to start, before carrying out the rites of Hajj when the pilgrimage begins. The word “Tamattu” signifies enjoyment, due to the fact that the pilgrim has the added advantage of performing Hajj and Umrah in the same journey without having to return home. Furthermore, the pilgrim is able to enjoy the benefits of a regular life after leaving the state of Ihram following Umrah, unconstrained by prohibitions, until Ihram is assumed once again for Hajj.

    • Hajj al-Tamattu is the easiest and most common type of Hajj and is performed by the vast majority of pilgrims. It is generally the pilgrimage of choice for the Afaqi, i.e. the pilgrim travelling to Makkah from a different part of the world.
    • This type of Hajj consists of two separate intentions. An intention for Umrah is made before the Miqat is crossed, whilst the intention for Hajj is made in Makkah after the Umrah has been completed.
    • A pilgrim who performs Hajj al-Tamattu is called a Mutamatti.
    • According to the Hanafi school of thought, it is disliked for individuals from Makkah to perform this type of Hajj, although it would still be considered valid.


    • Enter into the state of Ihram at the Miqat with the intention of performing Umrah.
    • This Umrah must be completed during the period of Hajj of the same year, prior to the beginning of the actual Hajj itself.
    • Proceed to Makkah, where you will begin the rites of Umrah.
    • Upon reaching Makkah, perform Tawaf al-Umrah.
    • Perform two rak’ahs of salah at Maqam Ibrahim and partake in the drinking of Zamzam water.
    • Proceed to Safa in order to perform Sa’i. This is separate from the Sa’i performed during Hajj.
    • Perform Halq or Taqsir. Men are recommended to have their hair trimmed rather than shaved, as they will have their heads shaved at a later stage during Hajj. Women must have their hair trimmed.
    • Your Umrah is now complete and the restrictions of Ihram have now been lifted. You can shower and wear your everyday clothes. You will wait until the 8th of Dhul Hijjah to start the rites of Hajj.

    Read our detailed Umrah guide.

    • On the 8th of Dhul Hijjah, you will make a new intention for Hajj at your place of residence or at Masjid al-Haram.
    • You will once again enter into a state of Ihram in the prescribed manner. There is no need to go to any particular Miqat to enter Ihram.
    • You will go to Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifah, where you will perform all the rites and actions of Hajj.
    • An animal sacrifice is required for Hajj al-Tamattu. Sacrificial animals are available in Mina and may be arranged through your agent.

    Read our detailed Hajj guide.

    Hajj al-Qiran

    Hajj al-Qiran involves combining Umrah with Hajj during the Hajj season, with only one intention and Ihram for both. It is regarded as the most difficult type of Hajj as it requires the pilgrim to abide by the prohibitions of Ihram for a longer period of time than the other two types. The Prophet ﷺ performed Hajj al-Qiran during Hajjat al-Wada.

    • This type of Hajj consists of one intention, which is made before the Miqat is crossed.
    • A pilgrim who performs Hajj al-Qiran is called a Qarin.
    • According to the Hanafi school of thought, it is disliked for individuals from Makkah to perform this type of Hajj, although it would still be considered valid.


    • Enter into the state of Ihram at the Miqat with the intention of performing both Hajj and Umrah.
    • Proceed to Makkah, where you will begin the rites of Umrah.
    • If you follow the Hanafi school, perform Tawaf al-Umrah upon reaching Makkah. After Tawaf al-UmrahSa’i must be performed immediately. This Sa’i will suffice for the Sa’i of Umrah.
    • If you follow one of the Maliki, Shafi’i or Hanbali schools, perform Tawaf al-Qudum upon reaching Makkah. It is identical to Tawaf al-Umrah with the exception of the intention that is made. After Tawaf al-QudumSa’i can be carried out immediately, or it can be delayed until after the performance of Tawaf al-Ziyarah. Sa’i should only be observed once during Umrah and Hajj, according to these schools of thought.
    • The performance of these rites will qualify as your Umrah.
    • You must not perform Halq or Taqsir. You should remain in a state of Ihram between Umrah and Hajj and only relinquish it on Yawm al-Nahr.

    Read our detailed Umrah guide.

    • If you follow the Hanafi school, it is sunnah to perform Tawaf al-Qudum when the Hajj commences. Following Tawaf al-QudumSa’i for Hajj may be carried out immediately, or it can be delayed until after the performance of Tawaf al-Ziyarah. You should ensure you perform Sa’i twice during the pilgrimage if you follow this school of thought.
    • You will go to Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifah, where you will perform all the rites and actions of Hajj.
    • An animal sacrifice is required for Hajj al-Qiran. Sacrificial animals are available in Mina and may be arranged through your agent.

    Read our detailed Hajj guide.

    Hajj al-Ifrad

    Hajj al-Ifrad refers to Hajj that is performed without Umrah during the Hajj season and is usually adopted by those who visit the Kaaba on a regular basis, such as residents of Makkah. Those performing Hajj al-Ifrad will normally arrive immediately before the first day of Hajj (8th of Dhul Hijjah), whereas pilgrims performing the other two types generally arrive a few days ahead of time.

    • This type of Hajj consists of one intention for the sole purpose of performing Hajj without Umrah.
    • A pilgrim who performs Hajj al-Ifrad is called a Mufrid.
    • This method of performing Hajj is ideally for those living in Makkah and individuals within the Miqat boundaries.


    • Enter into the state of Ihram at the Miqat with the intention of performing Hajj.
    • Upon reaching Makkah, perform Tawaf al-Qudum.
    • Perform two rak’ahs of salah at Maqam Ibrahim and partake in the drinking of Zamzam water.
    • After TawafSa’i can be performed immediately, or it can be delayed until after the performance of Tawaf al-Ziyarah.
    • You must not perform Halq or Taqsir. You should remain in a state of Ihram and only relinquish it on Yawm al-Nahr.
    • You will go to Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifah, where you will perform all the rites and actions of Hajj.
    • An animal sacrifice is not obligatory for Hajj al-Ifrad. However, it is mustahabb that an animal is sacrificed.

    Read our detailed Hajj guide.

    The Preferred Type of Hajj

    The four Sunni schools of thought differ as to which of the three kinds of Hajj is superior:

    • According to the Hanafi school, al-Qiran is the best, while al-Tamattu is superior to al-Ifrad.
    • According to the Shafi’i school, al-Ifrad is the best, while al-Tamattu is superior to al-Qiran.
    • According to the Maliki school, al-Ifrad is the best.
    • According to the Hanbali school, al-Tamattu is the best.

    Hajj: a Short Overview

    The rites of Hajj take place over a period of five days and five nights from the 8th to the 12th of Dhul Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Some pilgrims choose to remain in Mina for an extra day on the 13th, extending their Hajj to six days. The rites performed during Hajj are the same as those performed by the Prophet ﷺ during his farewell Hajj in 10 AH (623 CE).

    Mina is known as the Tent City
    Mina is known as the Tent City

    The Hajj begins on the 8th of Dhul Hijjah, known as Yawm al-Tarwiyah (the Day of Drinking), during which pilgrims adopt the Ihram and make their intention for Hajj. They then make their way to Mina, a location about five miles away from Makkah, where they perform their daily prayers and stay overnight in a tent.

    The next day, on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah, known as Yawm al-Arafat (the Day of Arafat), the pilgrims travel to Arafat after Fajr salah. Here they combine Dhuhr and Asr prayers and spend time supplicating during Wuquf, the most solemn rite of the Hajj. After sunset, they travel to Muzdalifah, where they combine Maghrib and Isha prayers and spend the night in the open sky.

    Pilgrims pelt the Jamarat
    Pilgrims pelt the Jamarat

    On the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, known as Yawm al-Nahr (the Day of Slaughtering), pilgrims return to Mina after performing Fajr salah in Muzdalifah, where they throw seven pebbles at Jamarah al-Aqaba, perform an animal sacrifice and have their hair cut. They are then released from the state of Ihram. Pilgrims may go to Makkah to perform Tawaf al-Ziyarah and the Sa’i of Hajj before returning to Mina.

    From the 11th-13th of Dhul Hijjah, known as Ayyam al-Tashreeq (the Days of Drying Meat), pilgrims spend time in Mina, where they throw seven pebbles at all three Jamarat on each day. If the animal sacrifice or the haircut wasn’t performed on the 10th, they may be carried out up until sunset on the 12th of Dhul Hijjah. The pilgrims then return to Makkah to perform Tawaf al-Wida as the final rite before going home or departing to Madinah.

    Preparation for Hajj

    For the vast majority of people, Hajj is a once-in-a-lifetime experience, and as such, the importance of sufficient planning and preparation can’t be emphasised enough. A great deal of time and funds, as well as mental, spiritual and physical preparation, is required in order for the pilgrimage to be a meaningful and special one. Travel agents need to be consulted, advice needs to be sought out, documents need to be prepared, vaccinations need to be administered and shopping needs to be done.

    Preparations should begin as early as possible, perhaps four to five months prior to your date of departure. Making your preparations early will not only give you peace of mind but will also provide you with leeway if you encounter any problems during your planning.

    We have prepared a number of articles to assist you with your planning and preparation. We have tried to be as comprehensive as possible, although please bear in mind individual needs vary from person to person, so you may need to add to the list according to your situation:

    The Jurisprudence of Hajj

    The following Arkan must be performed, otherwise the Hajj will be considered invalid. No one is exempt from them, even due to an excuse, nor can they be compensated for. These two integrals are:

    The basic Wajibat of Hajj are below, although there are more Wajibat related to each action, discussed in more detail in the relevant section for each rite. If a wajib element is omitted intentionally or inadvertently, a penalty will be due to redress its omission, whether it has been left out deliberately, unintentionally, accidentally or forgetfully. If the omission is due to a valid reason, expiation is not necessary. The fundamentally necessary actions of Hajj are as follows:

    Wajibat (Necessary Actions)
    To perform Sa’i between Safa and Marwa.
    To perform Wuquf at Muzdalifah.
    To pelt the Jamarat.
    To shave or shorten the hair.
    To perform Tawaf al-Wida.

    There are many Sunnan actions that can be performed during Hajj. These are discussed in more detail in the relevant article for each rite. If a sunnah is omitted intentionally, no penalty is due, although observing it is certainly virtuous. Following are some fundamental Sunnan of Hajj:

    Sunnan (Virtuous Actions)
    To perform Tawaf al-Qudum if performing Hajj al-Ifrad or Hajj al-Qiran.
    The Imam to deliver sermons on three occasions: on the 7th of Dhul Hijjah in Makkah, on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah at Masjid Nimra in Arafat and on the 11th of Dhul Hijjah in Mina.
    To spend the night before the Yawm al-Arafat (9th of Dhul Hijjah) in Mina.
    To spend the night preceding Yawm al-Nahr (10th of Dhul Hijjah) in Muzdalifah.
     To spend the nights of Ayyam al-Tashreeq (11th to 13th of Dhul Hijjah) in Mina.


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    • Very nice and good guideline for the pilgrims . A few printing mistakes may have occured inadvertantly . But no doubt , it’s a good and honest effort for the benefits of those who intend to perform pilgrimage . Thanks a lot for this great job.