• Ihram

    Ihram (Arabic: إحرام) refers to the sacred state a pilgrim must enter before carrying out the rites of Hajj and Umrah. The pilgrim must enter into this state after cleansing the body, wearing the prescribed attire and making the intention, before crossing the designated Miqat.

    Meaning of Ihram

    The word Ihram is derived from the Arabic verb harama (Arabic: حرم), which means “to be forbidden”. It refers to a state of purity the pilgrim is required to be in to perform Hajj, Umrah or both before entering the perimeter of Makkah. After having made the intention for Ihram, the pilgrim must abide by its prohibitions. An individual in the state of Ihram is known as a Muhrim, literally meaning “one who has made things forbidden upon himself.” The two-piece garment garment worn by men is also referred to as the Ihram.

    Significance of Ihram

    Ihram is a state of purity, both in mind and body. It is foremost a state of mind, whereby a spiritual relationship with God is established and the vanities of the world are renounced. Hajj is an egalitarian rite in the sense that all of humanity, irrespective of gender, sect, ethnic origin, rank or wealth, is equal before God. The Ihram attire, two pieces of white, unstitched cloth, removes all semblance of social, cultural and political differences for the sake of equality before God.

    When to Enter into Ihram

    Ihram must be assumed before crossing the Miqat boundary. If the Miqat is crossed without having entered into the state of Ihram, a penalty will be due in atonement, although the Hajj or Umrah will remain valid.

    According to the Hanafi school of thought, it is more meritorious to enter into Ihram while starting the Hajj journey from one’s hometown, while the Maliki and Hanbali schools affirm that assuming Ihram before the point of Miqat is more virtuous.

    Assuming you choose to enter into Ihram before the point of Miqat and you’re travelling by air, you will have different options on where you can change into your Ihram attire, depending on the airline you’re flying with.

    Flight with a non-Islamic Airline

    If you’re flying with a airline such as British Airways, there will be no facilities on board where you’ll be able to pray or get changed, so you should put on your Ihram at the airport prior to departure. It would be wise to check-in first before getting changed in the prayer room or in the bathroom. You should pronounce your intention and recite Talbiyah on the plane as the Miqat approaches to enter into the state of Ihram.

    Note: During the flight, you may be offered scented wet wipes. These must not be used whilst you’re in the state of Ihram or you will have to pay a penalty as expiation. The use of tissues without a fragrance is permitted.

    Flight with an Islamic Airline

    If you’re flying with an airline such as Saudia, you will have access to a prayer area during the course of the flight. About 20 or 30 minutes away from the Miqat, you will be informed by the captain or a message will appear on the screen informing you that the Miqat is approaching. At this point, you should change into your Ihram if you haven’t done so already. It is advisable to get changed about an hour before the point of Miqat if you want to avoid the rush of people intending to get changed as the Miqat approaches. You may then pronounce your intention and recite Talbiyah at the point of Miqat. If you feel uncomfortable getting changed on board or you think you may have difficulties in doing so, follow the approach above and put on the Ihram at the airport before departure.

    Flight that has one or more stops

    If you’re not flying directly to Saudi Arabia and you’re going to stop over in another country for a period of time, you’re advised to change into the Ihram during the stopover at the airport, before your departure to Saudi Arabia.

    Madinah First

    Depending on your package, you may go to Madinah for several days before departing for Makkah to perform Hajj or Umrah. If this is the case, you mustn’t assume Ihram prior to or during your journey. You may wear normal clothing until you’re ready to leave Madinah with the intention of performing Hajj or Umrah in Makkah, at which point you must enter into the state of Ihram. You may assume Ihram at your hotel in Madinah or at the designated Miqat for Madinah, Masjid Dhul Hulayfah. The taxi / coach will stop at the mosque on the way so you won’t need to worry about informing the driver of the detour.

    Masjid Dhul Hulayfa today

    Entering Ihram

    Preparation

    Prior to wearing the Ihram attire, you should be in a state of physical purity and take care of your personal hygiene at home, as instructed by the Prophet ﷺ. Abu Hurayrah I narrates:

    I heard the Prophet ﷺ saying: ‘Five things are part of nature: circumcision, removing the pubic hair, trimming the moustache, clipping the nails and removing the hair under the armpit.'1Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 5891.

    If you haven’t done so already, you should ensure you:
    Clip your finger and toe nails.
    Remove the hair under the armpits.
    Remove the hair under the navel.
    Trim the moustache.

    You should then perform Ghusl, a highly recommended act for those intending to assume Ihram. It is Sunnah for every man, woman and child, including those women experiencing menses or post-natal bleeding, to bathe prior to donning the Ihram garments. A woman experiencing menstruation may fulfill all the rituals of Hajj except Tawaf of the Kaaba and the two Rakahs of Nafl accompanying it. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrates:

    A woman experiencing menstruation or post-natal bleeding should take a bath, enter Ihram and perform all the rites of Hajj except circumambulation of the House, until she becomes pure.2Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1744; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 945.

    It is Makruh to neglect the Ghusl without a valid reason. If, for whatever reason, Ghusl can’t be performed, Wudhu should be carried out.

    Ihram for Men

    Men should remove any clothing that is stitched or tailored to fit the shape of the body such as shirts, trousers, vests and underwear before entering the state of Ihram. You may delay removing any clothing that violates the conditions of Ihram such as underwear until the point of Miqat, at which stage the intention for Ihram should be made.

    The Ihram attire consists of two white, simple pieces of cloth known as the Izar , which wraps around the waist covering the lower body, and the Rida, which is draped over the shoulders covering the upper body like a shawl. Shoes / sandals may be stitched or unstitched, but mustn’t cover the heel and ankle bones. The Hanafi school of thought also stipulates that the top part of the foot (specifically the instep area where the shoelace is normally tied) should also remain uncovered.3See this link or this link for further information about permissible footwear in Ihram.

    Put on the Izar as follows:
    Stand with your legs shoulder-width apart ensuring you have enough room to walk freely once it’s tied. Maintain this position until the bottom part of the Ihram is secure.
    Proceed to wrap the top part around the waist. Depending on the length of the garment, you will be able to wrap the garment around your waist more than once.
    Once the Ihram is wrapped around your waist, begin to fold and tuck in from the top of the Ihram in increments of about 10 cm. This should ensure the Ihram is held securely.
    The Izar should cover your entire Awrah. Any portion of your body from your navel to your knees should not be visible.

    The top sheet (Rida) is then simply draped around the top half of the body like a shawl.

    Other things to take into consideration:
    Avoid buying a very thin cotton Ihram – these may stick to you and become uncomfortable if you sweat. The thicker cotton garment or towelling is preferable and can later double up as towels / blankets etc.
    Head coverings, even during Salah, and underwear must not be worn by men.
    Your right shoulder should be covered at all times, except during Tawaf al-Umrah or Tawaf al-Qudum.
    Slippers / shoes must not cover the ankle and the top part of the foot.
    Don’t walk around without the top sheet (Rida).
    Keep your Ihram clean and avoid using it to wipe yourself.
    Take special care in the manner in which you sit whilst you’re in Ihram, so as not to expose yourself. As you won’t be wearing underwear, you may accidentally expose your private parts if due care isn’t taken.
    Don’t throw the top part of the Ihram (Rida) over your shoulder – this may hit someone behind you.
    It is a good idea to practice wearing and walking with the Ihram on beforehand so you become accustomed to it. Remember you will be spending 2-3 days in this state if you’re performing Hajj.

    Men may apply perfume to their heads / beards, ensuring not to get any on the Ihram garments.

    Ihram for Women

    Women are not required to conform to a specific dress code and are free to wear what they please. Needless to say, clothing should be normal, modest Islamic dress with a head covering of any colour. Socks may be worn but the hands and faces must be uncovered.

    Although covering the face is prohibited, using a cloth that hangs over the face without touching it is permissible. This is based on a narration by Aisha J:

    We were with the Prophet ﷺ whilst we were in Ihram. When a rider would pass us by, we would lower our garments from the top of our heads, and when he had gone, we would lift them up again.4Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2935; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1833.

    Salah al-Ihram

    After changing into your Ihram, it is Sunnah to perform two Rakahs of Salah al-Ihram before making the intention to enter into the state of Ihram, by consensus of all four schools of law. This should be performed before the Miqat has been crossed. Provided it isn’t one of the prohibited times for prayer, observe the Salah with the intention of performing two Rakahs Nafl for Ihram.

    If any other prayer is performed after changing into the Ihram attire and before pronouncing the intention, whether it is obligatory or Sunnah (such as the two Rakahs Salah for the greeting of the mosque), it will account for this prayer, even if there is no intention to do so.

    Since you’re not in the spiritual state of Ihram yet, you may perform the Salah with your head covered. It is a Sunnah to recite Surah al-Kafirun (Qul Yā Ayyuha-l-Kāfirūn – Surah 109) in the first Rakah and Surah al-Ikhlas (Qul Huwa-llāhu Ahad – Surah 112) in the second Rakah after Surah al-Fatiha, although any other Surah may be recited. Once you’ve finished, remove any headwear or anything else that may violate the rules of Ihram and get ready to make your intention.

    Women in a state of menstruation should not perform the Salah, rather they should make their intention for Hajj or Umrah and recite the Talbiyah.

    If you’re flying to Jeddah, either directly or via a connecting flight, it is a good idea to perform Salah al-Ihram at the airport before boarding the plane and then making your Niyyah on board before crossing the Miqat (about an hour before arriving at Jeddah airport). Delaying the Niyyah until the last moment is a good way of ensuring the restrictions of Ihram aren’t needlessly violated during or before the flight, particularly if flights are delayed or cancelled.

    If you’re flying with an Islamic airline and choose to perform Salah al-Ihram on the plane, you may find that there is a rush of people intending to perform the Salah making it difficult and uncomfortable to observe the prayer.

    Niyyah

    The Niyyah should be made at the Miqat or close to the Miqat as you move towards it. The intention must be made from the heart although it is also Mustahabb to utter the Niyyah verbally in Arabic or in your native language.

    It is also recommended to stipulate the purpose of Ihram while making the intention, specifying whether it is for Hajj or Umrah. If you’re performing Hajj, you should also indicate the type of Hajj you intend to carry out.

    The following are some examples of intentions that can be made in Arabic:

    Niyyah for Umrah

    This Niyyah is to be made if you’re performing Umrah during any time of the year, or Umrah as part of Hajj al-Tamattu. If you’re performing Hajj al-Tamattu, an intention for the Hajj will be made at a later stage.

    لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ عُمْرَةً
    Labbayka llāhumma ‘umratan.

    O Allah, here I am to perform Umrah.

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ
    Allāhumma innī urīdu l-‘umrata.

    O Allah, I intend to perform Umrah.

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ فَيَسِّرْهَا لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهَا مِنِّيْ
    Allāhumma innī urīdu l-‘umrata fa yassirhā lī wa taqabbalhā minnī.

    O Allah, I intend to perform Umrah, so accept it from me and make it easy for me.

    Niyyah for Hajj

    This Niyyah is to be made if you’re performing Hajj al-Tamattu (after Umrah has been completed) or Hajj al-Ifrad (only Hajj).

    لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ حَجًّا
    Labbayka llāhumma ḥajjan.

    O Allah, here I am to perform Hajj.

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْحَجَّ
    Allāhumma innī urīdu l-’ḥajja.

    O Allah, I intend to perform Hajj.

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْحَجَّ فَيَسِّرْهُ لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ
    Allāhumma innī urīdu l-’ḥajja fa yassirhā lī wa taqabbalhā minnī.

    O Allah, I intend to perform Hajj, so make it easy for me and accept it from me.

    Niyyah for Umrah and Hajj

    This Niyyah is to be made if you’re performing Hajj al-Qiran (Umrah and Hajj combined).

    لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ عُمْرَةً وَ حَجًّا
    Labbayka llāhumma ‘umratan wa ḥajjan.

    O Allah, here I am to perform Umrah and Hajj.

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ وَ الْحَجَّ
    Allāhumma innī urīdu l-’umrata wa l-ḥajja.

    O Allah, I intend to perform Umrah and Hajj.

    اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْعُمْرَةَ وَ الْحَجَّ فَيَسِّرْهُمَا لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهُمَا مِنِّيْ
    Allāhumma innī urīdu l-’umrata wa l-ḥajja fayassirhumā lī wa taqabbalhumā minnī.

    O Allah, I intend to perform Umrah and Hajj, so make them easy for me and accept them from me.

    Niyyah with a Stipulation (Ishtirat)

    If you feel that something may potentially hinder the performance of your Hajj or Umrah, such as illness, you can add the following stipulation to your Niyyah:

    اللَّهُمَّ مَحِلِّي حَيْثُ حَبَسْتَنِي
    Allāhumma maḥilli ḥaithu ḥabastani.

    O Allah, I will exit Ihram from the point You have prevented me.

    This is based on the following narration by Aisha J:

    Allah’s Messenger ﷺ entered upon Dubaa bint az-Zubair and asked her: ‘Do you have a desire to perform Hajj?’ She replied: ‘By Allah, I feel sick.’ He said to her: ‘Intend to perform Hajj and stipulate a condition by saying, “O Allah, I will exit Ihram from the point You have prevented me (i.e. I am unable to go further).” She was the wife of al-Miqdad bin al-Aswad.5Al-Bukhari, Hadith Mo. 5089

    The benefit here is that if circumstances prevent you from completing the rites of Hajj or Umrah or if you can’t enter Makkah for some reason, Fidyah won’t have to be paid in order to leave the state of Ihram. However, you must still have your hair cut to exit Ihram.

    Changing Niyyah

    Once you have entered into Ihram with a specific Niyyah, you can’t change that intention to perform another type of Hajj. For example, if you’ve made the intention to perform Hajj al-Ifrad (Hajj alone), you may not change it to perform Umrah and Hajj al-Tamattu later.

    However, it is permitted to change your intention before entering into the state of Ihram. For example, you may have had the intention of performing Hajj al-Qiran (Hajj and Umrah together) at home or during your journey but you make the intention of performing Hajj al-Tamattu at the point of entering Ihram. This is perfectly legitimate.

    Make sure you think carefully about the type of Hajj you want to perform prior to making your intention. Keep in mind that Hajj al-Tamattu is the easiest and most common type of Hajj.

    Niyyah for Others

    Hajj al-Badal is the act of performing Hajj or Umrah on behalf of someone else who cannot perform Hajj due to illness / incapacity or some other legitimate reason.

    If you are performing Hajj on behalf of someone else, such as your mother or your father, the Niyyah would be as follows:

    لَبَّيْكَ اللَّهُمَّ حَجًّا عَنْ ……. بِنْ / بِنْت
    Labbayka llāhumma ḥajjan ‘an ……….. bin / bint ………..

    O Allah, I intend to perform Hajj for ……….. son / daughter of ………..

    The intention must be made solely for that individual and nobody else.

    If you want to pass on the reward to several people, you may do so with the performance of a Nafl Hajj or Umrah.

    Talbiyah

    After making your intention, recite the Talbiyah.

    Words of the Talbiyah

    The Sunnah method of reciting the Talbiyah is to briefly pause at four places, indicated by the dashes. The words are as follows:

    لَبَّيْكَ اللهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ – لَبَّيْكَ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ – إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ – لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ –

    Labbayka llāhumma labbayk(a), labbayka lā sharīka laka labbayk(a), inna l-ḥamda wa n-ni’mata, laka wa l-mulk(a), lā sharīka lak.

    At Your service, Allah, at Your service. At Your service, You have no partner, at Your service. Truly all praise, favour and sovereignty is Yours. You have no partner.

    Manner of Reciting the Talbiyah

    Men should recite the the Talbiyah audibly, whereas women should recite it softly to the extent that it is loud enough to be heard by herself or someone next to her. It is Mustahabb to send Salawat upon the Prophet ﷺ and to supplicate after reciting the Talbiyah.

    When to Recite Talbiyah

    The Talbiyah should be recited as much as possible throughout Hajj and Umrah, whether you’re standing or sitting, in a vehicle or walking, whether you’re with or without Wudhu and in the case of women, whether you’re in a state of menstruation or not.

    It is recommended to recite the Talbiyah in the following instances:
    When boarding or disembarking a vehicle.
    When ascending or descending (a hill or a valley).
    When encountering a group of pilgrims.
    After prayers.
    During the last part of the night.
    In the early part of dawn.
    In the morning and evening.

    Timings of Talbiyah

    Hajj pilgrims should start uttering the Talbiyah after Ihram is assumed and continue with its recital up until the first pebble is thrown at Jamrat al-Aqaba on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, Yawm al-Nahr.

    Umrah pilgrims should start reciting the Talbiyah after Ihram is assumed and continue up until the Hajar al-Aswad is kissed, touched or saluted at the beginning of Tawaf al-Umrah.

    Virtues of the Talbiyah

    Jabir ibn Abdullah I narrates:

    There is no Muhrim who exposes himself to the sun all day for the sake of Allah, reciting the Talbiyah until the sun goes down, but his sins will disappear and he will be as he was on the day his mother bore him.6Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2925.

    Sahl bin Sa’d I narrates:

    The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘There is no Muslim who says the Talbiyah except that – on his right and left, until the end of the land, from here to there – the rocks, or trees, or mud say the Talbiyah.'7Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 828; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2921.

    After the Talbiyah

    Once the intention has been made and the Talbiyah has been uttered, you will have entered the sacred state of Ihram. A pilgrim in the state of Ihram is known as a Muhrim. As a Muhrim, you must be aware of the prohibitions of Ihram. You must also be conscious and mindful of God on all occasions, exercise patience and exhibit good character.

    Conditions of Ihram

    Permissible Actions

    The permissible actions of Ihram are as follows:
    Having a bath or shower, whether through necessity or not, as long as scented products are not used.
    Gently washing your head and body, even if hair falls out.
    Changing Ihram garments (can be done as often as necessary).
    Using a money belt / waist pouch / string which helps to further secure the lower garment of the Ihram (Izar).
    Using a safety pin to keep the top garment of the Ihram (Rida) from falling off or opening up constantly.
    Covering the body and feet with a blanket while sleeping, although the face and the head should remain exposed.
    Using an umbrella or any other object for shade, provided it does not rest on the face or the head.
    Carrying a backpack.
    Killing potentially harmful animals / insects such as snakes, scorpions, flies and cockroaches.
    Slaughtering domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, poultry etc. for food (hunting is strictly forbidden).
    Injections / vaccinations.
    Treatment where blood is extracted from the body, such as cupping.
    Surgical procedures such as the extraction of teeth.
    Watches, jewellery, identity wristband etc.
    Hearing aids, glasses, contact lenses, sunglasses, braces, false teeth.
    Socks and gloves (women only, not men).
    Using a plaster or bandage for cuts and sprains.
    Using a Miswak (the use of toothpaste is debated because it creates a strong fragrance in the mouth).
    Eating fragrant fruits such as apples and oranges.
    Eating fruit flavoured sweets and chocolates.
    Using tampons / sanitary towels.
    Breastfeeding.

    Disliked Actions

    These actions, although disliked, don’t carry a penalty.
    Rubbing the body to remove dirt.
    Washing the body with non-scented soap.
    Combing the hair.
    Scratching the body in such a manner that hair falls out.
    Smelling fragrance deliberately.
    Smelling fragrant fruits such as apples and oranges (although eating them is perfectly acceptable).
    Wearing a bandage on any part of the body without a valid reason.
    Wearing cosmetics / make-up.
    Cleaning the nose with a cloth.
    Eating strong scented sweets.
    Sleeping with the face flat on the pillow.
    Smoking.

    Forbidden Actions

    There are generally two types of prohibited actions whilst in the state of Ihram. The first is what is generally prohibited in day to day life and would constitute a sin e.g. using foul language, engaging in lewd behaviour, fighting and arguing. Although a penalty won’t have to be paid for engaging in such behaviour, it will no doubt take away some of the rewards and benefits of the Hajj or Umrah.

    فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ
    There is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj.
    [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:197]

    The second type of prohibited actions are those which generally wouldn’t constitute a sin and would be permitted outside the state of Ihram, but are prohibited in Ihram.

    Related Article:
    Violations & Penalties
    Fidyah is a means of compensation for a missed action or a violation of a Hajj-related law. It shouldn’t be regarded as a punishment, but a means of rectifying and renewing your commitment to the pilgrimage and the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ.

    Fidyah is obligatory when you have:

    1. Violated one of the prohibitions of Ihram, such as applying perfume or cutting the hair.
    2. Failed to perform a Wajib act of Hajj or Umrah, such as crossing the Miqat without entering into the state of Ihram.
    3. Transgressed the sanctity of the Haram, such as killing an animal within its boundaries.

    Penalties

    There are three categories of penalty, depending on the nature of the transgression:

    Badanah

    This refers to offering a large sacrificial animal such as a camel or cow (the size of which normally constitutes seven parts).

    Badanah would be required in the following two situations:

    1. Performing Tawaf in a state of major ritual impurity (requiring Ghusl), in a state of menstruation or after childbirth.
    2. Having sexual relations at any point between Wuquf in Arafat (on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah) and cutting the hair / Tawaf al-Ziyarah (on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah).

    Damm

    This refers to offering a small sacrificial animal such as a sheep or a goat (or the cost of one-seventh of a large animal if sharing).

    There are a number of actions which necessitate Damm:
    Entering the Miqat without coming into Ihram.
    Applying fragrances or perfumes to the body or to the clothing, or using scented substances.
    Applying Henna or Kohl to the body.
    Wearing stitched / sewn / tailored clothing that fits the shape of the body, in the case of men. For example, wearing underwear, shirts, trousers and jackets.
    Wearing footwear that covers the ankle and the top part of the foot (the shoelace area), in the case of men.
    Covering the head or face.
    Shaving, cutting, trimming or removing hair from any part of the body.
    Clipping the nails on the hands or feet.
    Kissing, touching or embracing a person of the opposite gender with lust / desire.
    Having sexual relations. Depending on when this takes place, it could also invalidate the Hajj.
    Hunting a prohibited animal.
    Omitting an obligatory action of Hajj or Umrah or not performing it in the way it should be performed.

    The above list is not exhaustive. Please refer to these tables which provide a more comprehensive overview of actions that would require Damm.

    Sadaqah

    This refers to providing charity to the poor and needy. It is recommended to give Sadaqah in the form of non-perishable staple foods such as flour, wheat, barley, dates or raisins. Depending on the violation, the amount of Sadaqah falls into three categories:

    1. Complete Sadaqah al-Fitr – This is equivalent to about 3 kg of wheat, 6 kg of barley, 6 kg of dates or raisins or its value in money.
    2. Less than Sadaqah al-Fitr – This can be a handful of wheat or an equivalent. For example, killing a locust would necessitate a handful of wheat in Sadaqah.
    3. Sadaqah equivalent to the value – For example, causing harm to an animal or cutting trees within the boundaries of the Haram would require a payment of Sadaqah equivalent to the value of the damage caused. The amount due should be judged by two Muslim men who are local to the area and upright in their character.
    There are a number of actions which necessitate Sadaqah:
    Applying small amounts of fragrances to the body / clothing or applying fragrances to small portions of the body / clothing.
    Wearing stitched clothing or prohibited footwear for a small amount of time.
    Covering a small portion of the head or the face.
    Shaving, cutting, trimming or removing small amounts of hair from the body.
    Clipping a few nails on the hands or feet.
    Not performing obligatory actions of Hajj or Umrah completely or properly. For example, omitting a circuit of Sa’i or performing Sa’i with a wheelchair without a valid reason would require Sadaqah to be paid.
    Causing harm to an animal.
    Killing lice or locusts.
    Cutting trees or grass within the boundaries of the Haram.

    The above list is not exhaustive. Please refer to these tables which provide a more comprehensive overview of actions that would require Sadaqah.

    Valid Excuses

    An individual in Ihram may be forced to commit an act which necessitates Damm or Sadaqah due to a valid excuse. Valid excuses include, but are not limited to, suffering from illness or being exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Generally, it includes anything that results in genuine hardship for the Muhrim.

    If, due to a valid reason, the Muhrim wears stitched garments, uses a fragrant substance, cuts or trims the hair, clips the nails or covers the head or face, the individual has three choices:

    1. Giving Damm.
    2. Fasting for three days, at a convenient time and location.
    3. Giving Sadaqah al-Fitr to each of six poor people.

    Committing an act due to error, forgetfulness, unconsciousness or poverty will not be regarded as a valid excuse.

    Fidyah Rules and Regulations

    These are as follows:
    Fidyah is not to be used intentionally to replace an obligatory rite of Hajj.
    It’s not obligatory to pay the penalty immediately although it should be completed as soon as possible.
    It must be fulfilled before death.
    It doesn’t necessarily have to be done in the days of Tashreeq (between the 10th and 12th of Dhul Hijjah), if you’re performing Hajj.
    The animal sacrifice must be performed within the boundaries of the Haram.
    The animal must be of the correct age and free from any physical defects.
    Coupons can be purchased for Damm and Sadaqah in kiosks around the Haram in the same way coupons for Hady can be purchased.
    Someone else may pay for the Fidyah on your behalf, granted you have given permission.
    The meat must go to the poor. You cannot eat the meat yourself, nor should it be distributed to the rich.

    References   [ + ]

    1. Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 5891.
    2. Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1744; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 945.
    3. See this link or this link for further information about permissible footwear in Ihram.
    4. Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2935; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1833.
    5. Al-Bukhari, Hadith Mo. 5089
    6. Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2925.
    7. Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 828; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2921.

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