According to the Hanafi Madhhab, two prayers can only be joined in Arafat and Muzdalifah during Hajj. Prayers may not be combined in any other circumstance, including travelling. According to the other schools of thought, it is permissible to combine prayers in certain circumstances, such as during a journey. Like with Qasr Salah, you need to qualify as a Musafir in order to combine prayers.
There are two types of Jama which are both acceptable according to these schools of thought:
- Jama al-Taqdim (Arabic: جمع التقديم; “early joining”) – combining the prayers at the time of the initial prayer e.g. combining Dhuhr with Asr at the time of Dhuhr and Maghrib with Isha at the time of Maghrib.
- Jama al-Takhir (Arabic: جمع التأخير; “late joining”) – combining the prayers at the time of latter prayer e.g. combining Dhuhr with Asr at the time of Asr and Maghrib with Isha at the time of Isha.
The Hanafi perspective relies primarily on the following Hadith:
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ الْوَاحِدِ بْنَ زِيَادٍ، وَأَبَا، عَوَانَةَ وَأَبَا مُعَاوِيَةَ حَدَّثُوهُمْ عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ عُمَارَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ مَا رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم صَلَّى صَلاَةً إِلاَّ لِوَقْتِهَا إِلاَّ بِجَمْعٍ فَإِنَّهُ جَمَعَ بَيْنَ الْمَغْرِبِ وَالْعِشَاءِ بِجَمْعٍ وَصَلَّى صَلاَةَ الصُّبْحِ مِنَ الْغَدِ قَبْلَ وَقْتِهَا .
Ibn Mas’ud رضي الله عنه said “I never saw the Apostle of Allah ﷺ observe a prayer out of its proper time except (two prayers) at al-Muzdalifah. He combined the sunset and night prayers at al-Muzdalifah and he offered the dawn prayer that day before its proper time.”
[Narrated in Sunan Abu Dawud]