- 1 Meaning of Baqi
- 2 Location and Size of Jannatul Baqi
- 3 Virtues of Baqi
- 4 The First to be Buried in Jannatul Baqi
- 5 Prominent Graves of Jannatul Baqi
- 5.1 Ahl al-Bayt (Family of the Prophet ﷺ)
- 5.2 Daughters of the Prophet ﷺ
- 5.3 Wives of the Prophet ﷺ
- 5.4 Relatives of the Prophet ﷺ
- 5.5 Imam Malik and Imam Nafi
- 5.6 The Prophet’s son ﷺ and close companions
- 5.7 Martyrs of Harra
- 5.8 Uthman ibn Affan
- 5.9 Halima al-Sa’diyya
- 5.10 Sa’d ibn Mu’adh and Abu Sa’id al-Khudri
- 5.11 Aunts of the Prophet ﷺ
- 6 History of Jannatul Baqi
- 7 Jannatul Baqi Today
Meaning of Baqi
The word baqi (Arabic: بقيع) means ‘a plot or tract of land that contains a mixture of plants’. It is related to the word biqa meaning a large expanse of land, although the word baqi specifically refers to land containing trees or remnants of trees, such as roots or trunks.
The main type of tree that grew in the area was al-Gharqad, commonly known as Arabian boxthorn or desert thorn. The scientific name for this species of tree is Lycium shawii. It can be found throughout the Arabian peninsula and is used in traditional medicine. It is no longer found in Baqi today.
Location and Size of Jannatul Baqi
Jannatul Baqi is the largest cemetery located in Madinah and is located next to Masjid Nabawi. It is thought to contain the graves of at least 10,000 companions of the Prophet ﷺ. Unfortunately, it is impossible to identify these graves today as they are unmarked.
It has three entrances; one on the north side, another on the east and its main entrance is on the western side. This entrance is used by visitors and for when burials take place.
The area between Jannatul Baqi and Masjid Nabawi is known as Bayn al-Haramayn, and used to contain the houses of Ahl al-Bayt as well as a market place. These no longer exist and have been replaced by a white marble plaza. You can now see the eastern exits of Masjid Nabawi from the entrance of Jannatul Baqi.
The size of Jannatul Baqi is said to have been about 80m2 in size. Today, this has grown to a massive 175,000m2, having been extended in 1373/1953-54.
Virtues of Baqi
The Prophet ﷺ is reported to have said:
From this cemetery (i.e. Baqi) emerges a light that will illuminate the heavens and the Earth.1Athar al-Madinah al-Munawwarah p172.
It is also reported that he ﷺ said:
Verily Allah will command, on the Day of Resurrection, that Juhun and Baqi are taken and placed in Paradise, and those who are buried in our cemetery (Baqi) will attain my intercession.2Sunan al-Nisai vol. 1, p. 602. Juhun refers to Jannatul Mala in Makkah.
Abdullah ibn Umar narrates that the Prophet ﷺ said:
Whoever is able to die in Madina should do so, for surely I will intercede for the one who dies in Madina.3Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 719; Ibn Majah vol. 2, Hadith No. 1039.
Umm Qays narrates that she saw the Prophet ﷺ in Jannatul Baqi who said to her:
Do you see this graveyard? From it (Baqi) 70,000 will be resurrected on the Day of Judgment illumined like moonlight. They will enter Paradise without reckoning.4Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 4, p. 68. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 12, p. 262.
He ﷺ also said:
I shall be the first to come out of the earth, then Abu Bakr and then Umar. Then I shall come to the people of al-Baqi and they shall be gathered with me. Then I shall wait for the people of Makkah so that I shall be gathered between the people of the Two Sanctuaries.5Al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, Hadith No. 622.
The Prophet ﷺ himself often visited Jannatul Baqi and would pray for the forgiveness of its inhabitants. Aisha J narrates:
The Prophet ﷺ used to leave his bed at night. I would follow him, and see that he entered Baqi. He used to stay there for a while, raising his hands to the heavens whilst praying for the people of Baqi and seeking forgiveness for them. Upon his return, I asked him regarding this, to which he replied: ‘I have been commanded to pray for them.’6Tarikh ibn Shabbah, vol. 1, p. 89-90.
She also says:
I asked (the Prophet ﷺ): How do I greet them (i.e., the people of Baqi’)? He replied, ‘Say: Peace be upon you O Inhabitants of this land from the believers and Muslims. May Allah have mercy upon those who have left this world and those who will eventually leave. We will, God willing, join you.’7Sunan al-Nisai vol. 4, p. 91.
As well as praying for those buried in Jannatul Baqi, the Prophet ﷺ would himself pray inside of the cemetery. The Shafi scholar ibn Asakir (d. 571/1176) narrates:
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ went to Baqi al-Gharqad and prostrated. He recited the following: ‘I seek refuge in You, Glory be to You, I am unable to fulfil gratitude to You, You are the way You have praised Yourself.’ Jibril then descended and said: ‘Oh Muhammad, raise your head to the heavens.’ The Prophet ﷺ did so, and noticed the gates of the heavens wide open. Written on one of them was: ‘Success for the worshippers on such a night’, on the other: ‘Success to the one who prostrates during this night’, and the third: ‘Success for the one who bows down this night.8Tarikh Damishq, vol. 51, p. 72.
The Prophet ﷺ also took part in funerals of people that had passed away and buried in Jannatul Baqi, such as that of the companion Sa‘d ibn Mu’adh I. He is also reported to have performed the funeral prayer in absentia for the Abyssian king Najashi in Jannatul Baqi around the year 8 AH.9Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 490.
The First to be Buried in Jannatul Baqi
When the Prophet migrated to Madinah ﷺ, there were already several cemeteries being used by the people. The Prophet ﷺ enquired about these graveyards but was instructed by Allah to bury the first Muslim in ‘the plot of land with the trees’.
According to the historian Ali al-Samhudi (d. 911/1533), the first companion to be buried in Jannatul Baqi was As’ad ibn Zurarah I from the Khazraj tribe of Madinah. He was from among the Ansar (helpers) and passed away nine months after the Prophet’s ﷺ arrival in Madinah.10Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 810.
The first from the Muhajirun (migrants) to buried in Jannatul Baqi was Uthman ibn Maz’un I in 2 AH. The Prophet ﷺ performed the funeral prayer and took part in his burial. He placed a stone at his head and said ‘this is the grave of our predecessor’. The Prophet ﷺ would visit his grave on various occasions.11Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 498. After the death of the next migrant, the Prophet ﷺ was asked where she should be buried to which he replied, ‘with our predecessor, Uthman ibn Maz’un.12Al-Mustadrak of al-Hakim, Volume 3, Hadith No. 209.
As years passed, the other two cemeteries used in Madinah, namely Bani Salim and Bani Haram, were less used.
Prominent Graves of Jannatul Baqi
Ahl al-Bayt (Family of the Prophet ﷺ)
As you enter the cemetery gate, there is a semicircular enclosure backed by an old stone retaining wall. Prominent members of the Prophet’s household ﷺ are buried here, namely:
- Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Ali Talib, grandson of the Prophet ﷺ
- Ali ibn Husain Zayn al-Abidin, the son of Hussain and the great grandson of the Prophet ﷺ
- Muhammad al-Baqir, the son of Zayn al-‘Abidin
- Ja’far al-Sadiq, the son of Muhammad al-Baqir
- Al-Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib, the paternal uncle of the Prophet ﷺ
- Fatima, daughter of the Prophet ﷺ M
Before 1925, a large domed mauseolum covered the area containing these graves. A tomb or darih (Arabic: ضريح) stood over each of the graves, with the exception of the grave belonging to Lady Fatima J.
Ibn Jubayr (d. 614/1217), the well-known traveller from al-Andulus, Spain writes:
The dome (of Baqi) is high up in the sky next to the entrance of the cemetery…Their graves are raised from the ground, quite wide with planks joined in the best of ways. These are supported by wooden pieces, nicely held by beautiful nails.13Rihlat Ibn Jubayr.
Muhibb al-Din ibn Najjar (d.643/1246), a historian and scholar from Baghdad, said:
It is a big and tall construction with two doors, one is opened each day.14Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 916.
Ibn Battutah (d.770/1369), another famous traveller from Morocco, states:
The dome (of Baqi) is tall and great in construction.15Rihlat Ibn Battutah
Sir Richard Burton (d.1308/1890), a British explorer who travelled to Medina in 1276 AH, describes the shrine in the following manner:
This dome is bigger and more beautiful than the other domes, and it is found on the right side of the entrance to the cemetery.
About 25 metres north of the area of the graves of the Ahlul Bayt is a small enclosure containing the graves of the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ. This section contains the blessed bodies of:
- Umm Kulthum, daughter of the Prophet ﷺ
- Ruqayya, daughter of the Prophet ﷺ
- Zaynab, daughter of the Prophet ﷺ M
Wives of the Prophet ﷺ
Slightly further north of the graves of the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ is an enclosure containing the graves of the wives of the Prophet ﷺ, described as the Mothers of the Believers in the Quran. All of his wives except Khadija bint Khuwaylid and Maymuna bint al-Harith K are buried here. Khadija is buried in the Jannatul Mualla cemetery in Makkah and Maymuna is buried 20 km north of Makkah at the location where she was married to the Prophet ﷺ.
- Aisha bint Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
- Sawda bint Zam’a
- Hafsa bint Umar ibn al-Khattab
- Zaynab bint Khuzayma
- Umm Salama bint Abi Umayya
- Juwayriyya bint al-Harith
- Umm Habiba, Ramla bint Abi Sufyan
- Safiyya bint Huyayy
- Zaynab bint Jahsh M
Relatives of the Prophet ﷺ
About five metres north of the graves belonging to the Mothers of the Believers lie three important relatives of the Prophet ﷺ. They are:
- Aqil ibn Abi Talib, brother of Ali ibn Abi Talib and cousin of the Prophet ﷺ
- Abdullah ibn Jafar al-Tayyar, son of Jafar ibn Abi Talib who was the Prophet’s cousin ﷺ
- Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith, the son of al-Harith ibn Abdul Muttalib and cousin and milk brother of the Prophet ﷺ (Halima al-Sa’diyya was their milk mother). M
Imam Malik and Imam Nafi
Approximately ten metres east of the grave of Aqil ibn Abi Talib are the graves of Imam Malik ibn Anas and his teacher, Imam Nafi ibn Abi Nuaym. Imam Malik was the founder of the Maliki School of jurisprudence. He passed away in Madinah in 179/795. A dome was built over his grave, probably in the fifth century AH. Ibn Jubayr records: ‘The grave of Malik ibn Anas, the Imam of Medina, has a small dome with a modest construction.’16Rihlat Ibn Jubayr Another dome also existed next to that of Imam Malik’s which was likely to have been built over the grave of Imam Nafi.
The Prophet’s son ﷺ and close companions
About twenty metres to the east of Imam Malik is the grave of Ibrahim M, the Prophet’s son ﷺ who passed away in his infancy. He was carried to Baqi on a small bier17a movable frame on which a coffin or a body is placed before burial or on which they are carried to the grave. by the Prophet ﷺ, who then performed his funeral prayer. After he was laid to rest, the Prophet ﷺ sprinkled some water on his grave and placed a rock on it so it could be identified.
A mausoleum and dome, white in colour, was later built over the grave. It was looked after for centuries before its demolition.18Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p918; Akhbar al-Madinah, p. 155.
In this vicinity, there are a number of companions including:
- Uthman ibn Maz’un
- Abdul Rahman ibn Awf
- Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas
- Asad ibn Zurara
- Khunais ibn Hudhafa
- Fatima bint Asad, mother of Ali ibn Abi Talib M
Martyrs of Harra
Approximately eighty five metres from the grave of the Prophet’s son ﷺ are a number of graves belonging to the martyrs of al-Harra. They died in the Battle of al-Harra in the year 63 AH/683, defending Madinah and its people against the forces of Yazid bin Mu’awiyya. Among the martyrs were:
- Abdullah bin Abu Bakr, the grandson of Jafar bin Abu Talib
- Abu Bakr bin Ubaidullah, the great grandson of Umar ibn al-Khattab
- Two grandsons of Umm Salama M
These graves are surrounded by a wall which reaches about one metre high in places. There was once a roof covering these graves.
Uthman ibn Affan
Approximately 135 metres east of the Martyrs of al-Harra, is the grave of Uthman ibn Affan I, the third Caliph. He was buried outside Jannatul Baqi in a plot of farmland that he had bought for his son Aban. He wanted to be buried alongside the Prophet ﷺand his two companions Abu Bakr and Umar but was unable to due to political uncertainty following his death.
His funeral was performed by Jubayr ibn Mutim I. He was buried at night outside of Jannatul Baqi, in a Jewish area known as ‘Hash Kawkab’ after Jubayr was refused entry into the graveyard.
After the first expansion of al-Baqi during the caliphate of Mu’awiyya I, the governor of Madinah, Marwan ibn al-Hakam demolished the wall between Baqi and Hash Kawkab, thereby extending the graveyard to include the grave of Uthman. A dome was later built over the grave, which caught the attention of many travellers before its destruction.
Due to recent expansions, the grave now lies in the middle of Jannatul Baqi.
Approximately fifty metres north of the grave of Uthman ibn Affan is the grave of Halima al-Sa’diyya J, the Prophet’s ﷺ milk mother. She and her husband witnessed many miracles when the Prophet ﷺ was in their care. She later embraced Islam with her husband and was buried in al-Baqi after she passed away. A dome was later built over her grave.
Sa’d ibn Mu’adh and Abu Sa’id al-Khudri
To the north east of Uthman ibn Affan’s grave are two graves belonging to Sa’d ibn Mu’adh and Abu Sa’id al Khudri L. Sa’d ibn Mu’adh died of injuries following the Siege of Banu Qurayzah and was buried in the house of al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad upon his return to Madinah, which was later annexed into al- Baqi. The enclosure is surrounded by a small wall close to the northern perimeter of Jannatul Baqi.
Other sources state that the grave here mentioned as that of Sa’d ibn Mu’adh is in fact the grave of Halima al-Sa’diyya and vice versa. And Allah knows best.
Aunts of the Prophet ﷺ
About forty metres to the north of the main entrance is an area which was once a small separate graveyard called Baqi al-Ammat, the Graveyard of the Aunts. This area once contained the house of Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba. Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, the Prophet’s ﷺ cousin, used to visit al-Mughira to ask him to open the door so he could greet the grave of his mother, Safiyya bint Abdul Muttalib. The area was annexed in 1953 (1373AH). The following are buried here:
- Safiyya bint Abdul Muttalib
- Atika bint Abdul Muttalib K
Historical sources suggest that a dome was erected over this grave during the thirteenth century AH.
History of Jannatul Baqi
Jannatul Baqi was originally just beyond the eastern boundary of Madinah, surrounded to the north, south and east by farmland. After the migration of the Prophet ﷺ to Madinah, he distributed land between his mosque to various companions so they could build houses. Many houses were built and physically connected to Jannatul Baqi via small alleyways. One of the companions that built a house here was the Prophet’s ﷺ cousin Aqil ibn Abi Talib I. The house of Aqil was eventually turned into a burial site for the Ahl al-Bayt within the cemetery. The historian Ali al-Samhudi, narrating from Ibn Zubalah, another historian, reports that Khalid ibn Awsajah said:
I was supplicating at the corner of the house of Aqil ibn Abi Talib when I saw Ja’far ibn Muhammad (al-Sadiq). He then asked me: Are you standing here for a reason. I replied: ‘No.’ He then said: ‘This is the place where the Prophet of God ﷺ used to come at night to ask forgiveness for the people of Baqi.19Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 890.
Due to its significance, many companions wanted to be buried near the house of Aqil in Jannatul Baqi. One of them was Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas I, who asked to be buried on the eastern side next to the house of Aqil. He was laid to rest there after he passed away.20Tarikh al-Madlnah, vol. 1, p. 116. Similarly, Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib I, the cousin of the Prophet ﷺ, was also buried outside the house of Aqil after making the same request.21Wafa al-Waja, vol. 3, p. 911. Tarikh al-Madinah, vol. 1, p. 127.
Over the years, as more people wanted to be buried in Baqi, some houses were turned into places of burial whilst others were destroyed to allow more graves to become part of the cemetery. For example, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz purchased a house belonging to Zayd ibn Ali and his sister Khadijah for 1,500 dinars. He then had it destroyed and connected it to Jannatul Baqi so that it could become a resting place for the family of Umar ibn al-Khattab.22Akhbar al-Madinah, vol. 1, p. 156.
The Construction of Mausoleums and Tombs
As time passed, mausoleums and tombs were constructed over many significant graves, including that of the wives and daughters of the Prophet ﷺ. According to historian Abd al-Aziz ibn Zubalah, who was alive in 199 AH, the construction of mausoleums first began in the second century after Hijri. This occurred during the caliphate of the Abbasid ruler Abi al-Abbas al-Saffah (132—136 AH) or the caliphate of Abu Ja’far al-Mansur (137-149 AH).23Tarikh al-Madinah, vol. l,p . 127.
The next earliest evidence of development of mausoleums and tombs in Jannatul Baqi is from the fifth century AH. Various sources state that the Sultan of the Seljuk Empire, Berkyaruq ibn Malakshah (d.498/1105), ordered the building of these shrines. For the following 800 years, these constructions caught the attention of many of its visitors.
According to Ali al-Samhudi, the first renovation of Jannatul Baqi took place in 519 AH at the command of the Abbasid caliph, al-Mustarshid Billah (d. 529/1135).24Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 916. Further renovation work was carried out by the Abbasid caliph al-Muntasir Billah between 623 and 640 AH. The Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (d. 1256/1839) was the third recorded ruler to have carried out renovation work to Jannatul Baqi.
Despite few sources detailing the renovation work in Baqi, it is evident maintenance was carried out throughout the years. The utmost respect was shown to the mausoleums and tombs by kings and rulers who invested in their upkeep and development.
Bayt al-Ahzan (the House of Sorrows)
After the death of the Prophet ﷺ, the Prophet’s daughter, Fatima al-Zahra J suffered tremendous grief. Her husband, Imam Ali I, pitched a tent for her in Jannatul Baqi close to the house of Aqil where she could go and grieve. A house was later built in this location, which became known as Bayt al-Ahzan – the House of Sorrows. During Ottoman rule, a mausoleum was built here in honour of Lady Fatima. This was sometimes referred to as the ‘Mosque of Fatima’ or the ‘Dome of Sadness’.
The British explorer Sir Richard Burton, who visited Jannatul Baqi prior to its demolition, describes this building:
Inside Baqi, a small mosque is found to the south of the dome of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. This is referred to as Bayt al-Ahzan, since Fatimah al-Zahra spent the last days of her life in this place weeping for her beloved father.
The First Destruction of Baqi
In 1744, an alliance was forged between Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), founder of the new conservative, puritanical Wahhabi movement and Muhammad ibn Sa’ud (d.1765), the ruler of the al-Diriyyah region of Arabia. Together, they worked to capture control of the Hijaz from the Ottomans, who had ruled the area since 1517 and sought to rid the region of practices of what they considered to be polytheism or shirk. The first city to fall was Riyadh in 1774, followed by al-Ahsa in 1795. In 1801, the Wahhabi army attacked Karbala in Iraq, ransacking the shrines of Imam al-Husayn and al-Abbas L, killing thousands of civilians in the process. In 1803, they captured Makkah, destroying many mosques and sites of historical significance including the Jannatul Mualla cemetery. Many domes that were built over the graves of prominent companions were demolished.
In 1805, they moved towards Madinah and after laying siege to the city for 18 months, they entered. They looted the burial place of the Prophet ﷺ and demolished the domes and mausoleums in Jannatul Baqi that had stood for centuries.
The European historian J. L. Burckhardt, visited Madinah in 1816 and describes the destruction in his book Travels in Arabia:
Rebuilding of Baqi
Following the outrage this caused in the Muslim world, the Ottomans sought to retake what they had lost. This resulted in the Ottoman-Saudi war which began in 1811. They finally defeated the Saudi army in 1818 and entered the city of Madinah. After retaking the city, the Ottomans began to rebuild what had been destroyed by the Wahhabis, including Jannatul Baqi. Donations and support came in from all over the Muslim world for this effort.
Sir Richard Burton, who disguised himself as a Muslim and travelled to Arabia vividly describes Jannatul Baqi following its reconstruction. Read it here.
The Second Destruction of Baqi
In 1924, the Wahabbis began another assault on the towns and cities of Hijaz. They took Makkah that same year and entered Madinah in 1925. Fearing a backlash, the Saudi ruler Ibn Saud didn’t have the mausoleums demolished immediately but waited five months before giving the order. Eventually the mausoleums and tombs were completely destroyed.
Eldon Rutter, a British traveller (born in 1894) recalls the destruction:
On several Thursday afternoons I went with Amir or other acquaintances to visit the cemetery of El Bakia. The place is enclosed by a mud wall, and measures some 200 yards by 120 yards. It lies close to the eastern wall of the city. Ten thousand of the Prophet’s companions are said to be buried here. When I entered the Bakia the sight which I saw was as it were a town which has been razed to the ground. All over the cemetery nothing was to be seen but little indefinite mounds of earth and stones, pieces of timber, iron bars, blocks of stone, and a broken rubble of cement and bricks, strewn about. It was the broken remains of a town which had been demolished by an earthquake. Against the western wall lay great stacks of old wooden planks, and others of stone blocks, and of iron bars and railings. This was some of the scattered material, which had been collected and stacked in order. A few narrow paths had been cleared in the rubble, so that visitors might make their way to the further parts of the cemetery; but other signs of order there was none. All was a wilderness of ruined building material and tombstones – not ruined by a casual hand, but raked away from their places and small ground.25The Holy Cities o f Arabia, p. 459.
Outrage and condemnation were voiced throughout the Muslim world. Despite many calls for the redevelopment of the cemetery, it remains in this state till today.
Jannatul Baqi Today
Today, most graves in Jannatul Baqi look similar and are marked by heaps of sand and rocks. The vast majority are unidentifiable. The more prominent graves, such as those of the Ahl al-Bayt can be identified by the slightly raised walls that surround them.
It is usually open twice a day – in the morning after the fajr prayer and in the afternoon after the asr prayer. Burials in the graveyard take place daily after each prayer.
Only men may access the graveyard; women are strictly prohibited from entering. Women may view the graves standing from adjacent roads.
Religious police patrol the cemetery and discourage visitors from using cameras and mobile phones. Use of such items may lead to their confiscation. Standing beside graves and praying for the deceased are also discouraged. The police often usher along those who they feel are loitering in one place for too long. Visitors in the past have been arrested for arguing with the police.
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||Athar al-Madinah al-Munawwarah p172.|
|2.||↑||Sunan al-Nisai vol. 1, p. 602. Juhun refers to Jannatul Mala in Makkah.|
|3.||↑||Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 719; Ibn Majah vol. 2, Hadith No. 1039.|
|4.||↑||Al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 4, p. 68. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 12, p. 262.|
|5.||↑||Al-Tirmidhi, vol. 5, Hadith No. 622.|
|6.||↑||Tarikh ibn Shabbah, vol. 1, p. 89-90.|
|7.||↑||Sunan al-Nisai vol. 4, p. 91.|
|8.||↑||Tarikh Damishq, vol. 51, p. 72.|
|9.||↑||Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 490.|
|10.||↑||Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 810.|
|11.||↑||Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 498.|
|12.||↑||Al-Mustadrak of al-Hakim, Volume 3, Hadith No. 209|
|13, 16.||↑||Rihlat Ibn Jubayr|
|14, 24.||↑||Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 916.|
|15.||↑||Rihlat Ibn Battutah|
|17.||↑||a movable frame on which a coffin or a body is placed before burial or on which they are carried to the grave.|
|18.||↑||Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p918; Akhbar al-Madinah, p. 155.|
|19.||↑||Wafa al-Wafa, vol. 3, p. 890.|
|20.||↑||Tarikh al-Madlnah, vol. 1, p. 116.|
|21.||↑||Wafa al-Waja, vol. 3, p. 911. Tarikh al-Madinah, vol. 1, p. 127.|
|22.||↑||Akhbar al-Madinah, vol. 1, p. 156.|
|23.||↑||Tarikh al-Madinah, vol. l,p . 127.|
|25.||↑||The Holy Cities o f Arabia, p. 459.|