Shortening the Salah during travelling is a commandment and a mercy from Allah:
وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُبِينًا
And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, [especially] if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy.
[Surah an-Nisa, 4:101]
It was thus a practice of Rasulullah ﷺ:
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا شَرِيكٌ، عَنْ زُبَيْدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى، عَنْ عُمَرَ، قَالَ صَلاَةُ السَّفَرِ رَكْعَتَانِ وَالْجُمُعَةُ رَكْعَتَانِ وَالْعِيدُ رَكْعَتَانِ تَمَامٌ غَيْرُ قَصْرٍ عَلَى لِسَانِ مُحَمَّدٍ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ .
It was narrated that Umar رضي الله عنه said: “The prayer while travelling is two Rakat, and Friday is two Rakat, and Eid is two Rakat. They are complete and are not shortened, as told by Muhammad ﷺ.”
[Narrated in Sunan Ibn Majah]
- When a person qualifies as a Musafir according to Islamic law, two Rakats instead of four should be performed for the Fardh of Dhuhr, Asr and Isha. The other Salahs remain the same.
- When praying behind an Imam in a congregation, the full Salah should be performed.
- If a person makes an intention of remaining in a particular place for 15 days or more, he will be regarded as a Muqim and must offer Salah as normal i.e. perform four Rakats for Dhuhr, Asr and Isha.