Sermon Before Departure
On the 24th of Dhul Qadah, the Prophet ﷺ delivered a Friday sermon to those that had gathered in Madinah, teaching them and reminding them of the purpose of the pilgrimage they were soon to perform. The Prophet ﷺ, dedicated to educating the pilgrims, answered questions directed at him whilst standing on the pulpit. Abu Huraira I narrates:
Allah’s Messenger ﷺ addressed us and said: ‘O people, Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you, so perform Hajj.’ Thereupon a person said: ‘Messenger of Allah, is it to be performed every year?. The Holy Prophet kept quiet, and the questioner repeated these words thrice. Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: ‘If I were to say “Yes” it would become obligatory for you to perform it every year and you would not have been able to fulfil it.’ Then he said: ‘Leave me as I leave you, for those who were before you were destroyed because of excessive questioning, and their opposition to their apostles. So when I command you to do something, do it as much as you can and when I forbid you to do something, abandon it.'1Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 7288; Muslim, Hadith No. 1337; Ahmad, Hadith No. 905, 2304 & 10607.
Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: ‘The people of Madinah should assume Ihram from Dhul Hulayfah, the people of Syria from al-Juhfah and the people of Najd from Qarn.’ And Abdullah added: I was informed that Allah’s Messenger ﷺ had said: ‘The people of Yemen should assume Ihram from Yalamlam.'2Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 133 & 1525; Muslim, Hadith No. 1182; Ahmad, Hadith No. 5070 & 5323.
As the Prophet ﷺ continued his sermon, someone asked what clothes pilgrims were permitted to wear in Ihram. Abdullah ibn Umar I narrates:
A person stood up and asked: ‘O Allah’s Apostle! What clothes may be worn in the state of Ihram?’ The Prophet ﷺ replied: ‘Do not wear a shirt, trousers, headwear (e.g. a turban) or a hooded cloak. However, if somebody has no shoes, Khuffs may be worn, provided they are cut beneath the ankles. Do not wear anything perfumed with Wars or saffron. A woman in the state of Ihram must not cover her face or wear gloves.'3Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1838 & 5805; Muslim, Hadith No. 1177; Ahmad, Hadith No. 4868 & 5325.
He continued to answer questions concerning the rites of Hajj.
Departure from Madinah
Before setting off, the Prophet ﷺ performed Dhuhr Salah at his mosque in Madinah in its usual manner, observing four Rakats.4Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1089 & 1546; Muslim, Hadith No. 690. He combed his hair, anointed it with oil and donned his upper and lower garments.5Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1545. He planned to travel to Dhul Hulayfah via the route of al-Shajarah.6Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1533; Muslim, Hadith No. 1257 At midday on Saturday 25th of Dhul Qadah, the Prophet ﷺ departed for the pilgrimage with thousands of companions by his side. Aisha J narrates:
We set out in the company of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ five days before the end of Dhul Qadah intending to perform Hajj only.7Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1709, 1720 & 2952; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2650; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2981.
He was accompanied by men, women and children, some of whom were ridings camels and horses whilst others walked. Among the women was Asma bint Umais J, the wife of Abu Bakr I, who was heavily pregnant and due to give birth. The Prophet’s ﷺ cousin, Duba’a bint al-Zubair ibn Abd al-Mutallib I was also intent on performing the pilgrimage, although she was anxious about not being able to complete the journey on account of her old age and poor health. Aisha J narrates:
Allah’s Messenger ﷺ entered upon Duba’a bint al-Zubair and said to her: ‘Do you have a desire to perform the Hajj?’ She replied: ‘By Allah, I am poorly.’ He said to her: ‘Make an intention to perform Hajj and stipulate a condition, saying: ‘O Allah, my place of release is where You may detain me’ (i.e. I am unable to go further). She was the wife of Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad.8Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 5089; Muslim, Hadith No. 1207 & 1208; Ahmad, Hadith No. 26953.
He was also accompanied by all of his wives.
In his absence, the Prophet ﷺ appointed Abu Dujana Simak bin Kharasha I, a companion from the clan of Banu Sa’idah of the Ansar, to govern over Madinah. Madinah, which was in the grip of war just a few years earlier, was now a place of security and tranquility.
Al-Qaswa, the same camel on which the Prophet ﷺ emigrated to Madinah 10 years earlier, was his favourite camel. It was fitted with an old saddle for him to sit on. He also had a shabby piece of velvet barely worth four Dirhams in his possession. Anas ibn Malik I narrated:
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ performed Hajj upon an old and worn saddle. On it was a piece of cloth, the value of which did not equate to four Dirhams. He supplicated, ‘O Allah, make the Hajj free of pretence, display and pride’.9Al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyyah, Hadith No. 323
Despite the infallibility of the Prophet ﷺ and the impossibility that he would perform an act for the purpose of fame or ostentation, he supplicated to be free of these two traits, demonstrating his great humility, considering himself just a normal person.
Thamama ibn Abdullah I narrated:
We saw Anas performing Hajj on a very plain and old saddle, even though he was not a miserly person. We asked him about it and he explained: ‘Verily the Prophet ﷺ performed Hajj on a camel that was used for carrying goods.'10Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1517
The rest of his luggage and supplies was mounted on a luggage camel belonging to Abu Bakr I, which the two of them shared.
At Dhul Hulayfah
Later that afternoon, the Prophet ﷺ and his companions arrived at Dhul Hulayfah, an open desert area located about 9 kilometres southwest of Madinah, in Wadi al-Aqeeq. This location was fixed as the Miqat for pilgrims coming from Madinah. Since it was an open area, it was used as a gathering place for pilgrims, allowing them to organise themselves and travel to Makkah in one body.
The Prophet ﷺ set up camp at the bottom of the valley in an area called Mu’arras, midway between the mosque situated in the middle of the valley and the road leading to Makkah.11Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1535 & 2336; Muslim, Hadith No. 1346; Ahmad, Hadith No. 6205. This place of encampment is today situated within the confines of Masjid Dhul Hulayfah. His companions also encamped within the valley. Fudayl ibn Sulayman I narrates what the Prophet ﷺ would normally do at Dhul Hulayfah:
The Messenger of God ﷺ dismounted at Dhul Hulayfa during his Hajj and whenever he performed an Umrah, beneath an acacia tree at the place of the mosque that is there. Whenever he was returning from Hajj, Umrah or a military expedition and his path would take him through here, he would descend to the centre of the valley. Upon reaching the valley, he would make his mount kneel at the plain that was on its eastern edge. He would dismount and rest there, rather than at the mosque near the rocks, nor at the palm trees in the vicinity of the mosque. At the bottom of the valley, there were piles of sand near which the Messenger of God ﷺ would pray. There was also a deep valley nearby in which Abdullah ibn Umar would pray. The flood from the plain ultimately buried that location where Abdullah would pray.12Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 484.
Having started on his journey, the Prophet ﷺ performed Asr Salah in Qasr mode, observing two Rakats instead of the usual four. 13Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1089 & 1547; Muslim, Hadith No. 690; Ahmad, Hadith No. 12818.
During the night, the Prophet ﷺ had a dream in which he was told that the valley in which he was lodging, Wadi al-Aqeeq, was a blessed area. Umar ibn al-Khattab I narrates:
In the valley of al-Aqiq, I heard Allah’s Messenger ﷺ saying: ‘During the night, a messenger came to me from my Lord and asked me to pray in this blessed valley and to assume Ihram for Hajj and Umrah together.'14Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1534, 1535, 2336, 2337 & 7343; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2976; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1800.
The same night, Asma bint Umais J gave birth to a boy who was named Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr I. Her husband, Abu Bakr I, informed the Prophet ﷺ and asked him what to do. The Prophet ﷺ instructed her to bathe, to bandage herself sufficiently with a piece of cloth, and then to assume Ihram. She was permitted to observe all Hajj rites with the exception of Tawaf.15Muslim, Hadith No. 1209, 1210 & 1218; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2664; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2911, 2912 & 2913; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1743; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2663, 2664 & 2762.
On the morning of the 26th of Dhul Qadah, after the Fajr prayer, he informed his companions that he was visited by someone sent by God. He informed them of the instruction to pray within the valley, so ordered them to perform the Dhuhr prayer there and to enter the state of Ihram thereafter.
Later that morning, the Prophet ﷺ spent time with each of his wives individually, ensuring that they were comfortable and well set for the journey ahead.16Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 270; Muslim, Hadith No. 1192. He then disrobed and performed Ghusl,17Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 830 before using honey to matte his hair, so it would be impervious to dust and lice for the duration of the journey.18Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1540. His wife, Aisha J, the Mother of the Believers, perfumed him with a fragrant substance containing musk, using her own hands. She narrates:
This perfume was visible on the front of his head and on his beard. Aisha J narrates:
The Prophet ﷺ then put on his Ihram garments before performing two Rakats of Dhuhr Salah, making his Niyyah and pronouncing Talbiyah at his place of prayer thereafter. Salim I narrates that his father said:
His Talbiyah was as follows:
لَبَّيْكَ اللهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ، إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَالنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالْمُلْكَ، لَا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ
Labbayka-llāhumma labbayk, labbayka lā sharīka laka labbayk, inna-l-ḥamda wa n-ni’mata, laka wa-l-mulk, lā sharīka lak.
At Your service, Allah, at Your service. At Your service, You have no partner, at Your service. Truly all praise, favour and sovereignty is Yours; You have no partner.22Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1549; Muslim, Hadith No. 1184.
The Prophet ﷺ drove a number of camels along with him to offer as Hady during Hajj. He made an incision to the right-hand side of the hump of his camel, squeezing some blood from it, and tied a pair of slippers around its neck to indicate that it was intended for sacrifice during the pilgrimage. The sacrificial camels were also garlanded in a ceremony known as “Taqlid”. Ibn Abbas I reported:
Allah’s Messenger ﷺ observed the Dhuhr prayer at Dhul Hulayfah, then called for his she-camel and marked it on the right side of its bump, removed the blood from it, and tied two sandals round its neck.23Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1545; Muslim, Hadith No. 1243.
It was also a display of honour for one of the rites ordained by Allah, who states:
وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُم مِّن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ
And the camels and cattle We have appointed for you as among the symbols of Allah; for you therein is good.
[Surah al-Hajj, 22: 36]
The companion Najiyah al-Khuza’i I (another narration mentions it was Dhuwaib Abu Qabisa I) was appointed by the Prophet ﷺ to escort the sacrificial animals to Makkah. Najiyah narrates:
I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah ﷺ! What should I do with a sacrificial animal that is injured?’ He said: ‘Slaughter it, soak its slipper with its blood and leave it for people to eat. You and your companions must refrain from eating any of the meat yourselves.'24Muslim, Hadith No. 1326; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 910.
Departure from Dhul Hulayfah
After marking his Hady, he mounted his she-camel and set off from Dhul Hulayfah completely absorbed in the devotion of Allah. As al-Qaswa began to move, the Prophet ﷺ faced the Qibla and pronounced the Talbiyah again. Abdullah ibn Umar I said:
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ pronounced Talbiyah in Dhul Hulayfa as he put his feet in the stirrup and his camel stood up and proceeded.25Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1514, 1553 & 2865; Muslim, Hadith No. 1187; Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2758, 2759 & 2760; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2916; Malik, Hadith No. 740.
As the Prophet ﷺ came to the hill of al-Bayda, he began to recite Tahmid (Al-Hamdu lillah), Tasbih (Subhan Allah), Tahlil (La Ilaha Illa Allah) and Takbir (Allahu Akbar), before pronouncing the Talbiyah aloud.26Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1551 & 1714; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1774 & 1796.
The specific location as to where the Prophet ﷺ initially recited Talbiyah as he entered into the state of Ihram seemed to have caused some confusion among the companions. As groups of people were arriving, they heard him proclaim the Talbiyah at different points: at his place of prayer, mounted on his she-camel and as he ascended the hill of al-Bayda. Abdullah ibn Abbas I said:
I swear by Allah, he raised his voice in the Talbiyah at the place where he prayed, he raised his voice in the Talbiyah when his she-camel stood up with him on its back and he raised his voice in the Talbiyah when he ascended the height of al-Bayda.27Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1770.
Sa’id ibn Jubayr I narrated:
The Prophet ﷺ chose to undertake Hajj al-Qiran, which combines both Hajj and Umrah without leaving Ihram. Those of his companions who were well off and brought their sacrificial animals with them, such as Abu Bakr, Umar, Talhah, al-Zubayr and Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf M, also elected to do the same.29Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1551; Muslim, Hadith No. 1251.
A great multitude of people journeyed, surrounding the Prophet ﷺ in all directions. He showed great humility during the journey, refusing to receive any special treatment. Jabir I reports:
I looked and people were ahead of him, riding and walking, as far as I could see. The same was the case to his right, left and rear. The Prophet ﷺ was among us, receiving Quranic revelations. He knew its meaning well. Whatever he did, we did likewise.30Muslim, Hadith No. 1218.
As he walked, the angel Jibril S came to the Prophet ﷺ with an instruction. Khallad ibn al-Sa’ib I reports that the Prophet ﷺ said:
Jibril came to me and said: ‘O Muhammad! Tell your Companions to raise their voices when reciting the Talbiyah.'31Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 829; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2753; Ahmad, Hadith No. 8314; 16568 & 16569.
The companions raised their voices with the declaration of the Talbiyah, as directed by the Prophet ﷺ. They also added various other phrases such as:
Labbayk Dha al-Ma’arij. Labbayk Dha al-Fawadil. Labbayk wa sa’dayk wal-khayr fi yadayk, wal-raghba’ ilayk wal-‘amal. Labbayk Dha al-Na’ma’ wal-fadl al-hasan. Labbayk marhuban mink, marghuban ilayk. Labbayk haqqan haqqa, ta’abbudan wa riqqa.
I respond to You, Lord of the Ways of Ascent. I respond to You, Lord of all bounty. I respond to You with all my being: all goodness is in Your hand, and all hope is in You and all deeds are for You. I respond to You, Lord of great blessings and bounty. I respond to You in fear and hope. I respond to You very truly, in worship and submission.32Muslim, Hadith No. 1184; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1475 & 14440; Ibn Abi Shaybah, Hadith No. 13472.
The Prophet ﷺ did not comment on any of these additional utterances but continued to recite the Talbiyah in the same manner as reported earlier.33Muslim, Hadith No. 1218. By the time the procession had reached al-Rawha, the companion’s voices were hoarse.34Ibn Abi Shaybah, Al-Musannaf, Hadith No. 15051 & 15057; al-Bayhaqi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 43; Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari vol. 3, p. 408.
About the Talbiyah, Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Sa’idi I narrated:
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘There is no Muslim who utters the Talbiyah except that, on his right and left, until the end of the land, from here to there, the rocks, trees and mud proclaim the Talbiyah’.35Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 828; Ibn Majah Hadith No. 2921
As the Prophet ﷺ traversed the open desert, he could envision earlierprophets who had taken the same journey as him. Crossing al-Rawha passage, he said:
Seventy Prophets went through al-Rawha passage to do the pilgrimage, wearing woollen garments.36Al-Azraqi, Akhbar Makkah, vol. 1, p. 49; al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 2, p. 598; Abu Ya’la, Al-Musnad., Hadith No. 4275 & 7231.
This narration confirms that the pilgrimage was performed by a number of prophets and messengers of Allah. It will also be carried out Isa ibn Maryam S according to the Prophet ﷺ. Hanzala al-Aslami I reported from Abu Huraira I:
Allah’s Apostle ﷺ said: ‘By Him in Whose Hand is my life. The son of Maryam (Jesus Christ) will certainly pronounce Talbiyah for Hajj or for Umrah or for both (simultaneously as Hajj al-Qiran) in the valley of al-Rawha. 37Muslim, Hadith No. 1252.
At al-Rawha, a group of companions came across a wounded donkey. Al-Bahzi I narrates the incident:
When they were in Ar-Rawha, they saw a wounded donkey. Mention of it was made to the messenger of Allah who said: ‘Leave it, for soon its owner will come.’ Shortly after, al-Bahzi, the owner of the animal appeared and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you may do with it as you wish.’ The Prophet ﷺ then ordered Abu Bakr to distribute it amongst the group of companions.38Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2818 & 4344; Malik, Hadith No. 784.
Fudayl ibn Sulayman I narrates where the Prophet ﷺ would pray at al-Rawha:
The Prophet ﷺ would pray at the site of the small mosque, rather than the site of the larger one at Sharaf al-Rawha. Abdullah ibn Umar would point out the place where the Prophet ﷺ would pray, and say: ‘It’s over there to your right when you stand in prayer at the mosque.’ That mosque is at the edge of the road on the right hand side when you proceed in the direction of Makkah. The distance between it and the bigger mosque is approximately a stone’s throw.39Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 485.
They continued until they reached al-Uthayah, an area between al-Ruwaythah and al-Arj, where they encountered a gazelle that had been struck by an arrow, lying on its side in some shade. It was reported that the Prophet ﷺ ordered a companion to stand next to it to prevent anyone from disturbing it until the caravan had passed.”40Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2818; Malik, Hadith No. 784
As the caravan reached al-Arj, the Prophet ﷺ and his companions stopped for a rest. The Prophet ﷺ sat next to his wife, Aisha J and her father Abu Bakr I was sat beside them with his other daughter Asma J. Abu Bakr was waiting for his servant to arrive with the camel that was carrying luggage belonging to himself and the Prophet ﷺ. The servant arrived in a state of confusion. Abu Bakr asked him: “Where is the camel?” He replied, “I have lost it.” Upon hearing this, Abu Bakr became angry and lashed out at his servant, saying: “You only had one camel to attend to and you managed to lose it.” The Prophet ﷺ smiled as he looked on. He said to those around: “Look at this man in a state of Ihram. What is he doing?”41Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1818; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2933; Ahmad, Hadith No. 26916.
It so transpired that when the servant was in al-Uthayah, he made the camel kneel down while he rested. Then sleep overcame him. The camel, however, rose and commenced to follow the mountain path. When the servant awoke, he followed the path thinking that he would be able to catch up with the camel. He called out to it but to no avail.
Having heard that the Prophet’s ﷺ luggage camel had gone missing, the family of Nadlah al-Aslami of the Ansar, immediately brought a large dish of Hays, made from dry yoghurt, dates and fat (the type of food that was typically taken on long journeys) and placed it in the Prophet‘s ﷺ hands. The Prophet ﷺ said to his close friend and father-in-law: “Come, Abu Bakr. God has sent us wholesome food.” Abu Bakr, however, was still upset with his servant. The Prophet ﷺ said to him: “Calm down, Abu Bakr. The matter is not in our hands. The boy had no intention of losing the camel. Here is some recompense for the lost luggage.” Abu Bakr eventually came around and enjoyed the meal alongside the Prophet ﷺ and his family.42Al-Waqidi, Kitab ai-Magahzi, vol. 3, pp. 1094-1095
A short while later, a companion named Safwan ibn al-Mu’attil I, who was in charge of the rear end of the caravan, found the camel and brought it to the Prophet ﷺ. The Prophet ﷺ advised Abu Bakr to check the luggage for missing items. Upon examining the luggage, he said: “We have not lost anything except a drinking bowl we used to drink with.” The servant told him that he had the bowl. Abu Bakr said to Safwan: “May God deliver whatever is entrusted to you.”43Ibid, vol. 3, p. 1093.
Meanwhile, Sa’d ibn Ubadah I, the chief of the Sa’ida clan of the Khazraj tribe, and his son Qays ibn Sa’d I came with a camel laden with provisions. They looked for the Prophet ﷺ until they found him standing at the door of his lodging next to the camel that had been returned to them. Sa’d said: “O Messenger of God, it has reached us that your camel was lost, so here is a replacement camel.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “God has returned our camel, so we are returning yours. May God bless you. O Abu Thabit, is the gracious hospitality you have shown us since our arrival in Madinah not enough for you?” Sa’d said: “O Messenger of God, by the grace of God and His messenger, what you take from our wealth is more precious to us than what you do not take.” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “O Abu Thabit. Rejoice, for you have prospered. Surely kindness is in the hand of God. And God provides gentleness to whomever he wills. Indeed God has gifted you with good character.” Sa’d said: “Praise be to God who has done so.” Thabit ibn Qays I added: “Indeed, O Messenger of God. The family of Sa’d in Jahiliyyah were our masters who provided us food in barren times.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “People remain as they were. The best of them in Jahiliyyah are the best of them in Islam when understanding comes to them.”44Ibid, vol. 3, p. 1095; Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20, p. 258.
The Prophet ﷺ would normally pray at a particular place in al-Arj. Fudayl ibn Sulayman I narrates:
The Prophet ﷺ prayed at the side of a hillock at the posterior of al-Arj, on the way to Hadba. At that mosque, there are two or three graves. Near them stand stone markers at some Salam trees to the right of the road. It was between those trees that Abdullah ibn Umar would pass from al-Arj, after the sun had begun to decline after midday. He would perform the Dhuhr prayer in that mosque.45Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 488.
During the journey, the Prophet ﷺ developed a migraine. The Prophet ﷺ would occasionally suffer from terrible migraines during the course of his life, some of which were so severe that they would prevent him from leaving his house for one or two days at a time. As the intensity of the migraine increased, cupping treatment was administered to the middle of his head at a place called Lahi Jamal.46Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1836 5698, 5699 & 5700; Muslim, Hadith No. 1202 & 1203; Ahmad, Hadith No. 2355. Cupping was also previously carried out on his foot to relieve pain in that area.47Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1837; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2848 & 2849;Ahmad, Hadith No. 12682, 14280 & 15097.
As he made his way through through al-Azraq Valley, the Prophet ﷺ had a vision of the Prophet Musa S. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrated:
We were with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ between Makkah and Madinah and we passed through a valley. He said: ‘What valley is this?’ They said: ‘Azraq Valley.’ He said: ‘It is as if I can see Musa S putting his fingers in his ears and raising his voice to Allah reciting the Talbiyah, passing through this valley.'48Muslim, Hadith No. 166; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2891.
The Prophet ﷺ and his companions alighted at a place called al-Abwa, the resting place of the Prophet’s ﷺ blessed mother, Aminah J. During the Prophet’s ﷺ childhood, his mother took him to Madinah to meet members of his extended family and introduce him to the city. On the return journey, she fell ill and tragically passed away in the village of al-Abwa, where she was buried.
Al-Sa’b ibn Jaththamah I, a local resident of the area who had not yet started his pilgrimage, brought the Prophet ﷺ some meat from an animal he had killed whilst hunting. He offered the Prophet ﷺ a piece of thigh meat from a donkey, which was trickling blood. The Prophet ﷺ couldn’t accept the gesture and was forced to return the gift. Realising that al-Sa’b was displeased, he apologised to him and explained his reason, saying: “We have not rejected it because we dislike it. We are in Ihram, and a person in a state of Ihram cannot eat of what is hunted. Had we not been in Ihram, we would have accepted your gift.”49Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1825 & 2596; Muslim, Hadith No. 1193 & 1194.
As he came to the mountain track of Harsha, the Prophet ﷺ had a vision of the Prophet Yunus S. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrated:
Then he came to the mountain track of Harsha. The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Which is this mountain track?’ They said: ‘It is the mountain track of Harsha.’ He said: It is as if I can see Yunus ibn Matta S on a red she-camel, wearing a woollen cloak and holding the reins of his she-camel woven from palm fibres, passing through this valley reciting the Talbiyah.50Muslim, Hadith No. 166; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2891.
As the caravan passed Jabal Jumdan, a mountain approximately 100 kilometres from Makkah near the village of Khulais, attention was brought to the Prophet ﷺ that some companions, in their eagerness to reach Makkah, had left the congregation and gone ahead. Abu Huraira I narrates:
The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘March on. This is Jumdan. The Mufarridun (single-minded) have gone ahead.’ The companions asked who the Mufarridun were, to which he replied: ‘They are those who absorb themselves in the remembrance of Allah (i.e. perform Dhikr). Their Dhikr will reduce their heavy burdens to such an extent that they will have a light load on the Day of Judgement.'51Muslim, Hadith No. 2676; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3596; Ahmad, Hadith No. 8290 & 9332.
Travelling through Usfan Valley, the Prophet ﷺ had another vision of earlier prophets. He said:
Prophets Hud S and Salih S went through it riding young red she-camels with fibre reins. They wore ordinary lower garments and woollen top garments. They headed to offer the pilgrimage at the Ancient House.52Ahmad, Hadith No. 2067; al-Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, Hadith No. 3714.
As the journey progressed, the Prophet ﷺ continued to educate and guide his companions, preparing them for the upcoming Hajj. Not only did he answer questions in abundance but he also asked questions of his companions. On one occasion, he heard a man utter the Talbiyah on behalf of someone else. Abdullah ibn Abbas I narrates:
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ heard a man saying: ‘Labbayk on behalf of Shubrumah’. The Prophet ﷺ asked: ‘Who is Shubrumah?’ He said: ‘A brother of mine.’ The Prophet ﷺ asked: ‘Have you performed your own Hajj?’ The man answered in the negative. The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Then perform this Hajj for yourself and carry out the pilgrimage on behalf of Shubrumah at a later date.'53Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1811; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2903; Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 3988.
On another occasion, the Prophet ﷺ passed a man walking barefoot and driving a camel with a rope around its hump and shoes hanging from its neck, indicating it was a sacrificial animal. Noticing the man was very tired, the Prophet ﷺ told him to mount and ride the animal. Abu Huraira I narrated:
The Prophet said to him: ‘Ride on it.’ He replied: ‘It is a Badana (sacrificial animal).’ The Prophet ﷺ again said: ‘Ride on it!’ Then I saw that man riding it, showing obedience to the Prophet and a shoe was hanging from its neck.'54Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1689, 1706 & 2754; Muslim, Hadith No. 1322 & 1323; Ahmad, Hadith No. 12040.
Before the advent of Islam, riding sacrificial animals was prohibited by the Arabs as they were considered sacred. The Prophet ﷺ abrogated this precedent.55Al-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol. 9, pp. 73-74; Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, vol. 3, p. 536-538.
A companion by the name of Abu Taliq I asked the Prophet ﷺ: “What would equal offering Hajj in your company?” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “To perform Umrah during the month Ramadan.”56Al-Tabarani, Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol. 22, p. 324.
With the arduous journey drawing to a close, the Prophet ﷺ encamped at Saraf, some 20 kilometres north of Makkah. Saraf is the place where the Prophet ﷺ married Maymuna bint al-Harith J thee years prior to the Hajj and is also the location of her burial site.
He addressed his companions, saying: “Those of you who have not brought a sacrificial animal and prefer to convert the Hajj into an Umrah (i.e. perform Hajj al-Tamattu) may do so, but whoever has brought a sacrificial animal should not do so (i.e. he should perform Hajj al-Qiran)”. This statement of the Prophet ﷺ partly abrogated his earlier instruction that everyone was free to choose the form of pilgrimage that suited them. Some of the companions did indeed convert it into an Umrah, as they were permitted, while others stuck with their original intention of performing Hajj, and did not convert it into an Umrah.57Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1560, 1786 & 1788; Muslim, Hadith No. 1211.
When the Prophet ﷺ attended to his wife, Aisha J, he found her weeping. She narrates:
Allah’s Messenger ﷺ came to me and saw me weeping and said: ‘What makes you weep, O Hantah?’ I replied: ‘I heard the conversation you had with your companions and I cannot perform the Umrah.’ He asked: “What’s the matter?’ I replied: ‘I cannot offer the prayers (i.e. I have my menses).’ He said, ‘ It will not harm you for you are one of the daughters of Adam, and Allah has ordained this for all daughters of Adam. Retain your intention for Hajj and Allah may reward you that.58Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 305, 1560, 1786 & 1788; Muslim, Hadith No. 1211.
|↑1||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 7288; Muslim, Hadith No. 1337; Ahmad, Hadith No. 905, 2304 & 10607.|
|↑2||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 133 & 1525; Muslim, Hadith No. 1182; Ahmad, Hadith No. 5070 & 5323.|
|↑3||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1838 & 5805; Muslim, Hadith No. 1177; Ahmad, Hadith No. 4868 & 5325.|
|↑4||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1089 & 1546; Muslim, Hadith No. 690.|
|↑5||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1545.|
|↑6||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1533; Muslim, Hadith No. 1257|
|↑7||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1709, 1720 & 2952; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2650; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2981.|
|↑8||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 5089; Muslim, Hadith No. 1207 & 1208; Ahmad, Hadith No. 26953.|
|↑9||Al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyyah, Hadith No. 323|
|↑10||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1517|
|↑11||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1535 & 2336; Muslim, Hadith No. 1346; Ahmad, Hadith No. 6205.|
|↑12||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 484.|
|↑13||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1089 & 1547; Muslim, Hadith No. 690; Ahmad, Hadith No. 12818.|
|↑14||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1534, 1535, 2336, 2337 & 7343; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2976; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1800.|
|↑15||Muslim, Hadith No. 1209, 1210 & 1218; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2664; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2911, 2912 & 2913; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1743; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2663, 2664 & 2762.|
|↑16||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 270; Muslim, Hadith No. 1192.|
|↑17||Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 830|
|↑18||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1540.|
|↑19||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1754; Muslim, Hadith No. 1189 & 1190|
|↑20||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1538 & 5923; Muslim, Hadith No. 1190.|
|↑21||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1541; Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2754 & 2757.|
|↑22||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1549; Muslim, Hadith No. 1184.|
|↑23||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1545; Muslim, Hadith No. 1243.|
|↑24||Muslim, Hadith No. 1326; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 910.|
|↑25||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1514, 1553 & 2865; Muslim, Hadith No. 1187; Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2758, 2759 & 2760; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2916; Malik, Hadith No. 740.|
|↑26||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1551 & 1714; Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1774 & 1796.|
|↑27, ↑28||Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1770.|
|↑29||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1551; Muslim, Hadith No. 1251.|
|↑30, ↑33||Muslim, Hadith No. 1218.|
|↑31||Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 829; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2753; Ahmad, Hadith No. 8314; 16568 & 16569.|
|↑32||Muslim, Hadith No. 1184; Ahmad, Hadith No. 1475 & 14440; Ibn Abi Shaybah, Hadith No. 13472.|
|↑34||Ibn Abi Shaybah, Al-Musannaf, Hadith No. 15051 & 15057; al-Bayhaqi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 43; Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari vol. 3, p. 408.|
|↑35||Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 828; Ibn Majah Hadith No. 2921|
|↑36||Al-Azraqi, Akhbar Makkah, vol. 1, p. 49; al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 2, p. 598; Abu Ya’la, Al-Musnad., Hadith No. 4275 & 7231.|
|↑37||Muslim, Hadith No. 1252.|
|↑38||Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2818 & 4344; Malik, Hadith No. 784.|
|↑39||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 485.|
|↑40||Al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2818; Malik, Hadith No. 784|
|↑41||Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1818; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2933; Ahmad, Hadith No. 26916.|
|↑42||Al-Waqidi, Kitab ai-Magahzi, vol. 3, pp. 1094-1095|
|↑43||Ibid, vol. 3, p. 1093.|
|↑44||Ibid, vol. 3, p. 1095; Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20, p. 258.|
|↑45||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 488.|
|↑46||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1836 5698, 5699 & 5700; Muslim, Hadith No. 1202 & 1203; Ahmad, Hadith No. 2355.|
|↑47||Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1837; al-Nasa’i, Hadith No. 2848 & 2849;Ahmad, Hadith No. 12682, 14280 & 15097.|
|↑48, ↑50||Muslim, Hadith No. 166; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2891.|
|↑49||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1825 & 2596; Muslim, Hadith No. 1193 & 1194.|
|↑51||Muslim, Hadith No. 2676; al-Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3596; Ahmad, Hadith No. 8290 & 9332.|
|↑52||Ahmad, Hadith No. 2067; al-Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, Hadith No. 3714.|
|↑53||Abu Dawud, Hadith No. 1811; Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 2903; Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 3988.|
|↑54||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1689, 1706 & 2754; Muslim, Hadith No. 1322 & 1323; Ahmad, Hadith No. 12040.|
|↑55||Al-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol. 9, pp. 73-74; Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, vol. 3, p. 536-538.|
|↑56||Al-Tabarani, Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, vol. 22, p. 324.|
|↑57||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1560, 1786 & 1788; Muslim, Hadith No. 1211.|
|↑58||Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 305, 1560, 1786 & 1788; Muslim, Hadith No. 1211.|